The Nato Intervention In Libya

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The Nato Intervention In Libya

Author : Kjell Engelbrekt
ISBN : 9781134514106
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 83.12 MB
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This book explores ‘lessons learned’ from the military intervention in Libya by examining key aspects of the 2011 NATO campaign. NATO’s intervention in Libya had unique features, rendering it unlikely to serve as a model for action in other situations. There was an explicit UN Security Council mandate to use military force, a strong European commitment to protect Libyan civilians, Arab League political endorsement and American engagement in the critical, initial phase of the air campaign. Although the seven-month intervention stretched NATO’s ammunition stockpiles and political will almost to their respective breaking points, the definitive overthrow of the Gaddafi regime is universally regarded as a major accomplishment. With contributions from a range of key thinkers and analysts in the field, the book first explains the law and politics of the intervention, starting out with deliberations in NATO and at the UN Security Council, both noticeably influenced by the concept of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P). It then goes on to examine a wide set of military and auxiliary measures that governments and defence forces undertook in order to increasingly tilt the balance against the Gaddafi regime and to bring about an end to the conflict, as well as to the intervention proper, while striving to keep the number of NATO and civilian casualties to a minimum. This book will be of interest to students of strategic studies, history and war studies, and IR in general.
Category: Political Science

The Nato Intervention In Libya

Author : Kjell Engelbrekt
ISBN : 0415705495
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.36 MB
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This book explores �lessons learned� from the military intervention in Libya by examining key aspects of the 2011 NATO campaign. NATO�s intervention in Libya had unique features, rendering it unlikely to serve as a model for action in other situations. There was an explicit UN Security Council mandate to use military force, a strong European commitment to protect Libyan civilians, Arab League political endorsement and American engagement in the critical, initial phase of the air campaign. Although the seven-month intervention stretched NATO�s ammunition stockpiles and political will almost to their respective breaking points, the definitive overthrow of the Gaddafi regime is universally regarded as a major accomplishment. With contributions from a range of key thinkers and analysts in the field, the book first explains the law and politics of the intervention, starting out with deliberations in NATO and at the UN Security Council, both noticeably influenced by the concept of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P). It then goes on to examine a wide set of military and auxiliary measures that governments and defence forces undertook in order to increasingly tilt the balance against the Gaddafi regime and to bring about an end to the conflict, as well as to the intervention proper, while striving to keep the number of NATO and civilian casualties to a minimum. This book will be of interest to students of strategic studies, history and war studies, and IR in general.
Category: Political Science

Global Nato And The Catastrophic Failure In Libya

Author : Horace Campbell
ISBN : 9781583674185
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 28.53 MB
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In this incisive account, scholar Horace Campbell investigates the political and economic crises of the early twenty-first century through the prism of NATO’s intervention in Libya. He traces the origins of the conflict, situates it in the broader context of the Arab Spring uprisings, and explains the expanded role of a post-Cold War NATO. This military organization, he argues, is the instrument through which the capitalist class of North America and Europe seeks to impose its political will on the rest of the world, however warped by the increasingly outmoded neoliberal form of capitalism. The intervention in Libya—characterized by bombing campaigns, military information operations, third party countries, and private contractors—exemplifies this new model. Campbell points out that while political elites in the West were quick to celebrate the intervention in Libya as a success, the NATO campaign caused many civilian deaths and destroyed the nation’s infrastructure. Furthermore, the instability it unleashed in the forms of militias and terrorist groups have only begun to be reckoned with, as the United States learned when its embassy was attacked and personnel, including the ambassador, were killed. Campbell’s lucid study is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand this complex and weighty course of events.
Category: Political Science

Nato S Failure In Libya

Author : Horace Campbell
ISBN : 9780798303439
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85.37 MB
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When the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings erupted in Africa, in the first two months of the year 2011, with the chant, 'the people want to bring down the regime', there was hope all over the continent that these rebellions were part of a wider African Awakening. President Ben Ali of Tunisia was forced to step down and fled to Saudi Arabia. Within a month of Ben Ali's departure, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt was removed from power by the people, who mobilised a massive revolutionary movement in the country. Four days after the ousting of Mubarak, sections of the Libyan people rebelled in Benghazi. Within days, this uprising was militarised, with armed resistance countered by declarations from the Libyan leadership vowing to use raw state power to root out the rebellion. The first Libyan demonstrations occurred on February 15, 2011, but by February 21 there were reports that innocent civilians were in imminent danger of being massacred by the army. This information was embellished by reports of the political leadership branding the rebellious forces as 'rats'. The United States (US), Britain and France took the lead to rush through a resolution in the United Nations (UN) Security Council, invoking the principle of the 'responsibility to protect'. This concept of responsibility to protect had been embraced and supported by many governments in the aftermath of the genocidal episodes in Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo. The UN Security Council Resolution 1973 of 2011 was loosely worded, with the formulation 'all necessary measures' tacked on to ensure wide latitude for those societies and political leaders who orchestrated the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) intervention in Libya. In the following nine months, the implementation of this UN resolution exposed the real objectives of the leaders of the US, France and Britain. With the Western media fuelling a propaganda campaign in the traditions of 'manufacturing consent', this Security Council authorisation was stretched from a clear and limited civilian protection mandate into a military campaign for regime change and the execution of the President of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi.
Category: Political Science

The Cauldron

Author : Rob Weighill
ISBN : 9780190916220
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 30.22 MB
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In March 2011, NATO launched a mission hitherto entirely unthinkable: to protect civilians against Libya's ferocious regime, solely from the air. NATO had never operated in North Africa, or without troops on the ground; it also had never had to move as quickly as it did that spring. It took seven months, 25,000 air sorties, 7,000 combat strike missions, 3,100 maritime hailings and nearly 400 boardings for Tripoli to fall. This book tells for the first time the whole story of this international drama, spanning the hallways of the United Nations in New York, NATO Headquarters in Brussels and, crucially, the two operational epicentres: the Libyan battlefield, and Joint Force Command Naples, which was in charge of the mission. Weighill and Gaub offer a comprehensive exploration of both the war's progression and the many challenges NATO faced, from its extremely rapid planning and limited understanding of Libya and its forces, to training shortfalls and the absence of post-conflict planning. Theirs is a long-awaited account of the Libyan war: one that truly considers all the actors involved.
Category: Political Science

Sowing Chaos

Author : Paolo Sensini
ISBN : 9780986085383
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 54.27 MB
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In early 2011, Libya came under attack by NATO countries purporting to engage in a humanitarian intervention to protect the Libyan people. In actuality, this was part of a larger-scale Western strategy to redesign the entire Middle East to suit its interests. This book addresses Libyan history of the last hundred years, from the main phases of the Italian military occupation (1911-1943) to the dramatic events of our own times, including an account of the post-war monarchy, Gaddafi’s rise to power, the air strikes on Tripoli and Benghazi ordered by Reagan in 1986, and the Lockerbie affair. Sensini exposes the 2011 misrepresentations by the mainstream media, major NGOs and even the International Criminal Court that sought to legitimize the NATO attack. He takes a close look at the Western organized and financed “rebels” in Benghazi who provided the pretext for UN approval of Resolution1973 embodying the new so-called “responsibility to protect” (R2P) doctrine. This criminal intervention devastated Libya, unleashing a civil war unlikely to cease in the near future. Sensini sheds light on the role of Hillary Clinton and the 11 September 2012 murder of American Ambassador Chris Stevens. The R2P upshot? Untold waves of migrants seeking to flee the continental chaos, leading to thousands of deaths and drownings across the Mediterranean, and the potential destabilization of Europe. “Dismissing the claim that the West’s Gaddafi-killing intervention in Libya, which played a big role in the chaos in the Middle East, was for humanitarian reasons, this book explains the real reasons. Of special interest is the author’s discussion of the central role played by “the ever-destructive Hillary Clinton.” – David Ray Griffin,
Category: Political Science

Libya The Responsibility To Protect And The Future Of Humanitarian Intervention

Author : A. Hehir
ISBN : 9781137273956
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 85.3 MB
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This book critically analyses the 2011 intervention in Libya arguing that the manner in which the intervention was sanctioned, prosecuted and justified has a number of troubling implications for the both the future of humanitarian intervention and international peace and security.
Category: Political Science

Political Rationale And International Consequences Of The War In Libya

Author : Dag Henriksen
ISBN : 9780191080159
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59.45 MB
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Political Rationale and International Consequences of the War in Libya focuses on the international intervention in Libya in 2011, and tries to answer two broad questions; (1) What was the political rationale for the various actors to proceed as they did in the lead-up and conduct of the military intervention in Libya?, (2) What are the consequences of the UN-authorized military intervention in Libya? R2P was the public raison d'être of the war, and an important legitimizing factor of the intervention. Still, the humanitarian situation was a necessary, but not in and by itself an adequate precondition for intervention. A number of factors coalesced to enable the intervention. While the humanitarian situation triggered the intervention, in reality a variety of national interests governed the approach by the various international actors, and more often than not, these motives were not rooted in the particular circumstances in Libya. The book offers a combination of unique perspectives. While the perspectives of the US, France, and the UK on the Libyan Crisis/War have been well documented, the Arabic and Scandinavian political and military dynamics have been much less so. While the perspectives of NATO, the UN, and R2P have been debated, the view from the Arab League and African Union (AU) have been less in focus. The volume redresses that imbalance and offers the most broad-ranging analysis yet of a key moment in recent international relations.
Category: Political Science

German Policy Towards Intervention In Libya

Author : Sarah Brockmeier
ISBN : 9783668121799
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86.77 MB
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Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: German Foreign Policy, grade: Distinction (75), University of Cambridge (POLIS), language: English, abstract: When Germany joined the United Nations Security Council in January 2011, Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle presented a motto that would guide his country through its two-year tenure: “Responsibility, Reliability and Commitment.” Less than three months after Germany took its seat, the Security Council confronted a crisis in Libya, where the government of Muammar Gaddafi was violently suppressing protesters, Westerwelle’s motto was put to the test. On March 17th, 2011, the German Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Peter Wittig lifted his hand to signal Germany’s abstention on Security Council Resolution 1973. By voting to abstain, Wittig formalized the most controversial German foreign policy decision of recent years. The abstention resulted in irritation among Germany’s allies and an unusually heated reaction within Germany itself, causing a rift in almost all major political parties. Depending on the explanations given for the abstention, politicians and commentators have differed in their conclusions concerning what the decision means for the direction of German foreign policy. Interpretations vary from seeing the decision as a result of the particular haste and the specific circumstances of the Libya crisis to concluding that it represents a strategic shift in German foreign policy towards the BRIC countries. In order to draw conclusions about the meaning of the Libya decision for German foreign policy, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the reasons for the German abstention and the domestic reactions to the Government’s policy. This paper will examine the factors that led Germany to refrain from participating in the NATO mission in Libya and to abstain on Resolution 1973. The paper will also analyze the reactions in the German political arena and the press to the decision. It will be argued that the German policy towards the Libya intervention was not a strategic repositioning of German foreign policy. The abstention was a result of the very specific circumstances around the Libya intervention and was influenced by various factors, including uncertainty over the military risks involved, the speed in which the resolution was put forward in New York, the late switch in positions of the United States and the personal convictions of the Foreign Minister. While the abstention itself represents a break with German foreign policy traditions, the reluctance to participate in the military intervention itself is in line with these traditions.
Category: Political Science

Military Intervention In The Middle East And North Africa

Author : Susannah O'Sullivan
ISBN : 9781317209676
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 80.88 MB
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This book contributes to an increasingly important branch of critical security studies that combines insights from critical geopolitics and postcolonial critique by making an argument about the geographies of violence and their differential impact in contemporary security practices, including but not limited to military intervention. The book explores military intervention in Libya through the categories of space and time, to provide a robust ethico-political critique of the intervention. Much of the mainstream international relations scholarship on humanitarian intervention frames the ethical, moral and legal debate over intervention in terms of a binary, between human rights and state sovereignty. In response, O’Sullivan questions the ways in which military violence was produced as a rational and reasonable response to the crisis in Libya, outlining and destabilising this false binary between the human and the state. The book offers methodological tools for questioning the violent institutions at the heart of humanitarian intervention and asking how intervention has been produced as a rational response to crisis. Contributing to the ongoing academic conversation in the critical literature on spatiality, militarism and resistance, the book draws upon postcolonial and poststructural approaches to critical security studies, and will be of great interest to scholars and graduates of critical security studies and international relations.
Category: Political Science

Intervention In Libya

Author : Karin Wester
ISBN : 110870185X
Genre : Humanitarian intervention
File Size : 37.24 MB
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"In recent years, while Libya has gradually slid into a state of chaos, lawlessness, and violence, the views concerning the international response to the Libyan crisis in 2011 have also shifted noticeably. In 2011, despite the controversy over NATO's intervention in Libya, numerous actors involved - as well as observers - concurred in their positive assessment of the decision to intervene in the country. The German magazine Der Spiegel qualified the decision as a shift by the UN "from peace to people," and as "a turning point in international relations" - reflecting sentiments echoed elsewhere at the time. Throughout 2011, the intervention in Libya was frequently considered as an important step towards a growing acceptance of foreign interference on humanitarian grounds. In the summer of 2012, after the first elections in nearly 50 years had taken place in Libya, an academic research report stated, while contrasting the situation in Libya with previous experiences in Afghanistan and Iraq: "In a period in which the future of large-scale interventions is in doubt, the Libyan case may offer precedents for future post-conflict situations.--
Category: Humanitarian intervention

The Nato Intervention In Libya

Author : Kjell Engelbrekt
ISBN : 9781134514038
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.54 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 213
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This book explores ‘lessons learned’ from the military intervention in Libya by examining key aspects of the 2011 NATO campaign. NATO’s intervention in Libya had unique features, rendering it unlikely to serve as a model for action in other situations. There was an explicit UN Security Council mandate to use military force, a strong European commitment to protect Libyan civilians, Arab League political endorsement and American engagement in the critical, initial phase of the air campaign. Although the seven-month intervention stretched NATO’s ammunition stockpiles and political will almost to their respective breaking points, the definitive overthrow of the Gaddafi regime is universally regarded as a major accomplishment. With contributions from a range of key thinkers and analysts in the field, the book first explains the law and politics of the intervention, starting out with deliberations in NATO and at the UN Security Council, both noticeably influenced by the concept of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P). It then goes on to examine a wide set of military and auxiliary measures that governments and defence forces undertook in order to increasingly tilt the balance against the Gaddafi regime and to bring about an end to the conflict, as well as to the intervention proper, while striving to keep the number of NATO and civilian casualties to a minimum. This book will be of interest to students of strategic studies, history and war studies, and IR in general.
Category: Political Science

The Military Intervention In Libya Realist Or Humanitarian

Author : Namia Akhtar
ISBN : 3659547808
Genre :
File Size : 36.3 MB
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This book unveils the myth of humanitarian intervention in the Libya war in 2011 that was advertised as NATO doing a favour to the Libyan people. Nonetheless, This book has argued that the key countries involved in the Libya war specifically France, Britain and the United States were driven by core national interest. It was economic interest and the refugee crisis that largely motivated France and Britain whereas the United States were driven by their ambition to spread the branch of AFRICOM in the African continent.
Category:

R2p And The Us Intervention In Libya

Author : Paul Tang Abomo
ISBN : 9783319788319
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 34.77 MB
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This book argues that the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) the Libyan people played an important role in the U.S.’s decision to act, both in terms of how the language of deliberation was framed and the implementation of the actual intervention once all preventive means had been exhausted. While the initial ethos of the intervention followed international norms, the author argues that as the conflict continued to unfold, the Obama administration’s loss of focus and lack of political will for post-conflict resolution, as well as a wider lack of understanding of ever changing politics on the ground, resulted in Libya’s precipitation into chaos. By examining the cases of Rwanda and Darfur alongside the interventions in Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan, the book discusses how these cases influenced current decision-making with regards to foreign interventions and offers a triangular framework through which to understand R2P: responsibility to prevent, react and rebuild.
Category: Political Science

The Positions Of Germany In Nato Towards The Issues Of The Arab World

Author : Fadi Rajab
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 29.4 MB
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The present work tries to point out the importance of the role played by NATO in recent decades through military intervention in the internal affairs of many countries of the world and the errors committed by this alliance under the name of (Humanitarian Intervention) through its policies that described by analysts as a failure and moved away from the objectives of the alliance's core. This intervention has left a legacy of destruction and killing of civilians and destroying of the infrastructure of the countries. In addition, the importance of this work emerges through helping us to better understand the motives of German foreign policy on the one hand, and then facilitate the prediction about its external behavior or positions within NATO towards the Libyan crisis and towards any issues and regional or global issues that may occur in the future, on the other. This work aims to explain the theoretical frameworks of the determinants of foreign policy of Germany that are related to the structure of the international system and NATO, including Germany, and explore the impact of these determinants on the German foreign policy.
Category:

Escalation Intervention

Author : Anthony Bell
ISBN : OCLC:755269139
Genre : Insurgency
File Size : 31.24 MB
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This report is the second installment of a four-part series on the revolution in Libya. Part Two: Escalation and Intervention details the international reaction to the war and the process that led to the U.S. and allied military intervention in March 2011. The paper begins with the initial international reaction to the uprising in Libya in the early spring of 2011 and the international debate over a no-fly zone. This section documents efforts by the United States and its European allies to garner broader support for intervention in Libya, especially from Arab states. During this time, France, Great Britain, and the United States led international efforts to intervene in Libya. The third part of the paper explains the efforts to implement a no-fly zone under the U.S.-led Operation Odyssey Dawn in March 2011. This report concludes with a discussion of the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector and emerging tensions amongst NATO allies over the way forward in Libya.
Category: Insurgency