The Coevolution

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The Coevolution The Entwined Futures Of Humans And Machines

Author : Edward Ashford Lee
ISBN : 9780262043939
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30.38 MB
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"Richard Dawkins famously said that a chicken is an egg's way of making another egg. Is a human a computer's way of making another computer? Quite possibly, the software systems that have taken over so many aspects of our lives should themselves be viewed as living beings, part of the natural evolutionary process of life. They are creatures defined by bits, not DNA, and made of silicon and metal, not organic molecules. They are born and they die. Some are simple, with a genetic code of a few thousand bits, and some are extremely complex. Most live short lives, sometimes less than a second, while others live for months or years. Some even have prospects for immortality, prospects better than any organic being. Does it really make sense to view this technology as an emerging new life form on our planet? If so, will this new life form become sentient? Annihilate us? Merge with us, either physically or symbiotically? These systems extend our minds and shape our culture. Are we designing them, or are they designing us? Are we fundamentally different from them, or are we all computer programs, albeit running on different hardware? Lee argues that the assumption made by many that we humans, as cognitive beings, are actually computations ourselves, and therefore destined to be eclipsed by these digital systems, is a "dataist" faith, a scientifically indefensible belief. I also argue that humanity is rapidly coevolving with technology and that we will change as much we change it"--
Category: Computers

The Coevolution

Author : Edward Ashford Lee
ISBN : 9780262358361
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71.74 MB
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Should digital technology be viewed as a new life form, sharing our ecosystem and coevolving with us? Are humans defining technology, or is technology defining humans? In this book, Edward Ashford Lee considers the case that we are less in control of the trajectory of technology than we think. It shapes us as much as we shape it, and it may be more defensible to think of technology as the result of a Darwinian coevolution than the result of top-down intelligent design. Richard Dawkins famously said that a chicken is an egg's way of making another egg. Is a human a computer's way of making another computer? To understand this question requires a deep dive into how evolution works, how humans are different from computers, and how the way technology develops resembles the emergence of a new life form on our planet. Lee presents the case for considering digital beings to be living, then offers counterarguments. What we humans do with our minds is more than computation, and what digital systems do—be teleported at the speed of light, backed up, and restored—may never be possible for humans. To believe that we are simply computations, he argues, is a “dataist” faith and scientifically indefensible. Digital beings depend on humans—and humans depend on digital beings. More likely than a planetary wipe-out of humanity is an ongoing, symbiotic coevolution of culture and technology.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Coevolution Of Humanity And Infectious Disease

Author : David Clark
ISBN : 0132102269
Genre : Education
File Size : 68.88 MB
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This is the eBook version of the printed book. This Element is an excerpt from Germs, Genes, & Civilization: How Epidemics Shaped Who We Are Today (9780137019960) by David P. Clark. Available in print and digital formats. ¿ From hunter-gatherers to agricultural societies and beyond: How humans and disease have evolved together. ¿ Patterns of infection vary greatly between hunter-gatherers and settled agricultural societies. Two major factors are intertwined: low population size and high mobility. Ancient hunter-gatherers almost certainly had much less infectious disease than we have today. Before dense human populations grew, most of our epidemic diseases did not exist. Furthermore, small, mobile, relatively isolated tribes would rarely have been infected by contact with others.
Category: Education

The Coevolution Of Language Teaching And Civil Discourse Among Humans

Author : Donald M. Morrison
ISBN : 9783030485436
Genre : Education
File Size : 68.7 MB
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This book traces the evolutionary trajectory of language and teaching from the earliest periods of human evolution to the present day. The author argues that teaching is unique to humans and our ancestors, and that the evolution of teaching, language, and culture are the inextricably linked results of gene-culture coevolutionary processes. Drawing on related fields including archaeology, palaeontology, cultural anthropology, evolutionary psychology and linguistics, he makes the case that the need for joint attention and shared goals in complex adaptive strategies is the underlying driver for the evolution of language-like communication. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of these disciplines, as well as lay readers with an interest in human origins.
Category: Education

Postcinematic Vision

Author : Roger F. Cook
ISBN : 9781452961231
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 66.8 MB
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A study of how film has continually intervened in our sense of perception, with far-ranging insights into the current state of lived experience How has cinema transformed our senses, and how does it continue to do so? Positing film as a stage in the long coevolution of human consciousness and visual technology, Postcinematic Vision offer a fresh perspective on the history of film while providing startling new insights into the so-called divide between cinematic and digital media. Starting with the argument that film viewing has long altered neural circuitry in our brains, Roger F. Cook proceeds to reevaluate film’s origins, as well as its merger with digital imaging in the 1990s. His animating argument is that film has continually altered the relation between media and human perception, challenging the visual nature of modern culture in favor of a more unified, pan-sensual way of perceiving. Through this approach, he makes original contributions to our understanding of how mediation is altering lived experience. Along the way, Cook provides important reevaluations of well-known figures such as Franz Kafka, closely reading cinematic passages in the great author’s work; he reassesses the conventional wisdom that Marshall McLuhan was a technological determinist; and he lodges an original new reading of The Matrix. Full of provocative and far-reaching ideas, Postcinematic Vision is a powerful work that helps us see old concepts anew while providing new ideas for future investigation.
Category: Performing Arts

Beauty And The Beast

Author : Susan Grant
ISBN : UOM:39015008350582
Genre : Animals
File Size : 50.39 MB
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Category: Animals

Knowledge And Competitive Advantage

Author : Johann Peter Murmann
ISBN : 0521813298
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 60.43 MB
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A comparison of the development of the synthetic dye industry in Europe and the US.
Category: Business & Economics

The Coevolution Of Human Potential And Converging Technologies

Author : Mihail C. Roco
ISBN : UVA:X004793336
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 78.51 MB
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The convergence of nanoscience, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC) offers immense opportunities for the improvement of human abilities, social outcomes, the nation's productivity, and its quality of life; it also represents a major new frontier in research and development. This conclusion was reached at a December 2001 workshop held by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce in which leading experts from government, the academic research community and the private sector explored the nature and size of the potential opportunities in NBIC convergence. The report that resulted from this workshop, asserting that NBIC convergence is a broad, cross-cutting, emerging and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society and humanity in the long term, recommended that an R&D initiative focusing on enhancing human performance (while governed by respect for human welfare and dignity) should become a national priority. The NBIC Convergence 2003 conference was organized as a first step in realizing the vision of this report. In this volume, a panel of nationally recognized experts analyzes the opportunities NBIC convergence prese
Category: Psychology

Proceedings

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015060978882
Genre : Biology
File Size : 86.23 MB
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Category: Biology

Biology Under The Influence

Author : Richard Lewontin
ISBN : 9781583673928
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.13 MB
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How do we understand the world? While some look to the heavens for intelligent design, others argue that it is determined by information encoded in DNA. Science serves as an important activity for uncovering the processes and operations of nature, but it is also immersed in a social context where ideology influences the questions we ask and how we approach the material world. Biology Under the Influence: Dialectical Essays on the Coevolution of Nature and Society breaks from the confirms of determinism, offering a dialectical analysis for comprehending a dynamic social and natural world. In Biology Under the Influence, Richard Lewontin and Richard Levins provide a devastating critique of genetic determinism and reductionism within science while exploring a broad range of issues including the nature of science, biology, evolution, the environment, pubic health, and dialectics, They dismantle the ideology that attempts to naturalize social inequalities, unveil the alienation of science and nature, and illustrate how a dialectical position serves as a basis for grappling with historical developments and a world characterized by change. Biology Under the Influence brings together the illuminating essays of two prominent scientists who work to demystify and empower the public's understanding of science and nature.
Category: Science

Leading Sectors And World Powers

Author : George Modelski
ISBN : 1570030545
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58.10 MB
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The idea that political and economic power moves in coordinated cycles has long intrigued political scientists and political economists, for if a pattern exists in the rise and fall of international political power, a model explaining this pattern gains predictive qualities. In Leading Sectors and World Powers, George Modelski and William R. Thompson venture beyond previous attempts to explain why major powers rise, fall, and fight about their changing status to establish an explicit connection between war, economic innovation, and world leadership. They argue that surges in economic innovation, which in turn are tied to global war, determine leadership in the global system. Modelski and Thompson base their theory on the coordination of long cycles (phases of world order and decay punctuated by intensive bouts of global war) and K-waves (cycles delineating the wax and wane of leading industrial sectors). They contend that K-waves appear in paired sets correlated to long-cycle shifts in political power. Modelski and Thompson conclude by discussing the nature and timing of the next K-wave/long cycle peak, commenting on the relevance of it for U.S. industrial policy and speculating on the possibility of evolving away from this pattern in the near future.
Category: Business & Economics

Foundations Of Environmental Sustainability

Author : Larry Rockwood
ISBN : 0198042264
Genre : Science
File Size : 39.46 MB
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This book reviews and analyzes the period (roughly from the 1950s to the present) when the "environment" became an issue as important as economic growth, or war and peace; to assess the current situation, and begin planning for the challenges that lie ahead. Most people are aware of both the environmental destruction taking place around the world and of the specter of climate change. The devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina illustrates the potential for disaster when climate change is combined with the mismanaged environmental policy. How did we get to this point? What has been done and what can be done to avoid future environmental disasters? Thirty-two contributing chapter authors (among them, one of the principal drafters of the National Environmental Policy Act, Chief of the African Environment Division and the World Bank, Vice President of the Center for Conservation Innovation at the World Wildlife Fund, President of the Zoological Society of London, former President of the Ecological Society of America) use their unique, authoritative perspective to review the evolution of environmental science and policy in the past half century. Each author describes the evolution of environmental science and policy in the past half century and consider the challenges of the future. Although the authors of this book come from various fields, they have followed paths that have generally converged on the concept of sustainability. This book attempts to define what sustainability is, how we can achieve it, and what the prospects for sustainability in the future are.
Category: Science

The Coevolution Of Ido1 And Ahr In The Emergence Of Regulatory T Cells In Mammals

Author : Ursula Grohmann
ISBN : 9782889197293
Genre : Electronic book
File Size : 60.58 MB
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) is an ancestral enzyme that, initially confined to the regulation of tryptophan availability in local tissue microenvironments, is now considered to play a wider role that extends to homeostasis and plasticity of the immune system. Thus IDO biology has implications for many aspects of immunopathology, including viral infections, neoplasia, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammation. Its immunoregulatory effects are mainly mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) and involve not only tryptophan deprivation but also production of kynurenines that act on IDO- DCs, thus rendering an otherwise stimulatory DC capable of regulatory effects, as well as on T cells. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-operated transcription factor originally recognized as the effector mediating the pathologic effects of dioxins and other pollutants. However, it is now well established that AhR activation by endogenous ligands can produce immunoregulatory effects. The IDO1 mechanism appears to have been selected through phylogenesis primarily to prevent overreacting responses to TLR-recognized pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and only later did it become involved in the response to T cell receptor-recognized antigens. As a result, in mammals, IDO1 has become pivotal in fetomaternal tolerance, at a time when regulatory T cells emerged to meet the same need, namely protecting the fetus. IDO1 and regulatory T (Treg) cells may have then coevolved to broaden their function well beyond their initial task of protecting the fetus, such that, in acquired immunity, IDO1 (with its dual enzymic and signaling function) has turned into an important component of the peripheral generation and effector function of regulatory T cells. AhR, in turn, which has a role in regulatory T-cell generation, is presumed to have evolved from invertebrates, where it served a ligand-independent role in normal development processes. Evolution of the receptor in vertebrates resulted in the ability to bind structurally different ligands, including xenobiotics and microbiota-derived catabolites. Considering the inability of invertebrate AhR homologs to bind dioxins, the adaptive role of the AhR to act as a regulator of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes may have been a vertebrate innovation, to later acquire an additional immune regulatory role by coevolutive pressure in mammals by IDO1 and regulatory T cells. Thus an entirely new paradigm in immunology, and more specifically in immune tolerance, is the coevolution of three systems, namely, the IDO1 mechanism, AhR-driven gene transcription, and T-cell regulatory activity, that originating from the initial need of protecting the fetus in mammals, have later turned into a pivotal mechanism of peripheral tolerance in autoimmunity, transplantation, and neoplasia.
Category: Electronic book

The Symbolic Species

Author : Terrence William Deacon
ISBN : 0393317544
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 86.62 MB
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Discusses the evolution of language from the viewpoint of symbolic reference as opposed to the conventional grammar-based theories
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Yellow Fever Black Goddess

Author : Christopher Wills
ISBN : STANFORD:36105018366208
Genre : Medical
File Size : 48.35 MB
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Explores the evolutionary interaction between microbes and humans through an examination of the growth, struggle to survive, and dissemination of disease-causing protoza, bacteria, and viruses
Category: Medical