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Author : Arlie O. Petters
ISBN : 9781461201458
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.9 MB
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This monograph is the first to develop a mathematical theory of gravitational lensing. The theory applies to any finite number of deflector planes and highlights the distinctions between single and multiple plane lensing. Introductory material in Parts I and II present historical highlights and the astrophysical aspects of the subject. Part III employs the ideas and results of singularity theory to put gravitational lensing on a rigorous mathematical foundation.

Author : Arlie O. Petters
ISBN : 3764336684
Genre : Gravitational lenses
File Size : 40.19 MB
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"This monograph develops a mathematical theory of gravitational lensing. The theory applies to any finite number of deflector planes and highlights the distinctions between single and multiple plane lensing." "Examples, illustrations, bibliography and index make this a suitable text for an undergraduate/graduate course, seminar, or independent thesis project on gravitational lensing. The book is also a reference text for professional mathematicians, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists, and physicists."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The modern theory of singularities provides a unifying theme that runs through fields of mathematics as diverse as homological algebra and Hamiltonian systems. It is also an important point of reference in the development of a large part of contemporary algebra, geometry and analysis. Presented by internationally recognized experts, the collection of articles in this volume yields a significant cross-section of these developments. The wide range of surveys includes an authoritative treatment of the deformation theory of isolated complex singularities by prize-winning researcher K Miyajima. Graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in mathematics will find many research ideas in this volume and non-experts in mathematics can have an overview of some classic and fundamental results in singularity theory. The explanations are detailed enough to capture the interest of the curious reader, and complete enough to provide the necessary background material needed to go further into the subject and explore the research literature.

Author : P. Schneider
ISBN : 9783662037584
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.94 MB
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Light observed from distant objects is found to be deflected by the gravitational field of massive objects near the line of sight - an effect predicted by Einstein in his first paper setting forth the general theory of relativity, and confirmed by Eddington soon afterwards. If the source of the light is sufficiently distant and bright, and if the intervening object is massive enough and near enough to the line of sight, the gravitational field acts like a lens, focusing the light and producing one or more bright images of the source. This book, by renowned researchers in the field, begins by discussing the basic physics behind gravitational lenses: the optics of curved space-time. It then derives the appropriate equations for predicting the properties of these lenses. In addition, it presents up-to-date observational evidence for gravitational lenses and describes the particular properties of the observed cases. The authors also discuss applications of the results to problems in cosmology.

This book provides a comprehensive and self-contained exposition of gravitational lensing phenomena. It presents the up-to-date status of gravitational lensing and microlensing, covering the cosmological applications of the observed lensing by galaxies, clusters and the large scale structures, as well as the microlensing searches in the Local Group and its applications to unveil the nature of the galactic dark matter, the search for planetary objects and the distribution of faint stars in our galaxy. Gravitational Lensing and Microlensing is pitched at the level of the graduate student interested in the issues of astrophysics and cosmology, and should be useful for specialist researchers as well. Contents:Historical IntroductionThe Deflection of LightGravitational Lensing TheoryMacrolensing ResultsMicrolensing I: BasicsMicrolensing II: Beyond the Simplest Light CurveCosmology Tools Readership: Graduate students, researchers and academics in astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Keywords:Gravitational Lensing;Microlensing;Deflection of Light;MacrolensingReviews:“… here one can find a complete overview of all the recent revolutionary developments of gravitational lensing, with a fully self-consistent treatment of microlensing. The quality and number of didactic illustrations is high … I think that this book should not be missing in scientific libraries that are to be updated on gravitational lensing. It also provides a useful support tool for basic gravitational lensing courses. Finally it can be recommended to researchers who want a rapid overview of the field, without getting swamped into too many details.”General Relativity and Gravitation

Author : Bernd G. Schmidt
ISBN : 9783540465805
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 31.15 MB
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This book serves two purposes. The authors present important aspects of modern research on the mathematical structure of Einstein's field equations and they show how to extract their physical content from them by mathematically exact methods. The essays are devoted to exact solutions and to the Cauchy problem of the field equations as well as to post-Newtonian approximations that have direct physical implications. Further topics concern quantum gravity and optics in gravitational fields. The book addresses researchers in relativity and differential geometry but can also be used as additional reading material for graduate students.

This 3-volume set includes up-to-date results in relativity theory, including their influence in cosmology and theories of classical and quantum gravity. This is provided by reprints of papers from the journal General Relativity and Gravitation, together with a preface introducing the inter-relation of these topics. Coverage includes: black holes and gravitational lensing; singularity theorems for Einstein gravity; strings; and Kaluza-Klein cosmological models.

In this book the author gives a comprehensive picture of the physical laws that appear to regulate the functioning of the Universe from the atomic to the cosmic world. The book offers a description of the main fields of physics — classical physics, relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics — as they are applied to the atomic world and the cosmos to describe how the whole Universe has evolved to the present state. The description concentrates on the essentials, describing our present knowledge of those physical laws and outlining our limitations in understanding the whole picture. This is done essentially without equations, except for a few important ones. The text includes a short Annex for mathematically inclined readers who wish to see how the physical principles and laws expressed in words can be visualized in the language of mathematics, but the book can be read without referring to that Annex. Also, The Universe explains in depth those laws and outlines their limitations. The author, however, does this in an accessible language that should be understandable to non-specialists. In particular, he occasionally uses two young characters placed in various situations to explain the physics involved in those situations by means of their observations. The author uses also numerous clear pictures and graphics that make the text more easily comprehensible./a

Author : Thibault Damour
ISBN : 9789814458030
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.4 MB
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Marcel Grossmann Meetings are formed to further the development of General Relativity by promoting theoretical understanding in the fields of physics, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics and to direct future technological, observational, and experimental efforts. In these meetings are discussed recent developments in classical and quantum gravity, general relativity and relativistic astrophysics, with major emphasis on mathematical foundations and physical predictions, with the main objective of gathering scientists from diverse backgrounds for deepening the understanding of spacetime structure and reviewing the status of test-experiments for Einstein's theory of gravitation. The range of topics is broad, going from the more abstract classical theory, quantum gravity and strings, to the more concrete relativistic astrophysics observations and modeling. The three volumes of the proceedings of MG12 give a broad view of all aspects of gravitational physics and astrophysics, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments. The scientific program of the meeting includes 29 plenary talks stretched over 6 mornings, and 74 parallel sessions over 5 afternoons. Volume A contains plenary and review talks ranging from the mathematical foundations of classical and quantum gravitational theories including recent developments in string theories, to precision tests of general relativity including progress towards the detection of gravitational waves, to relativistic astrophysics including such topics as gamma ray bursts, black hole physics both in our galaxy, in active galactic nuclei and in other galaxies, neutron stars, pulsar astrophysics, gravitational lensing effects, neutrino physics and ultra high energy cosmic rays. The rest of the volumes include parallel sessions on dark matter, neutrinos, X-ray sources, astrophysical black holes, neutron stars, binary systems, radiative transfer, accretion disks, alternative gravitational theories, perturbations of collapsed objects, analog models, black hole thermodynamics, cosmic background radiation & observational cosmology, numerical relativity & algebraic computing, gravitational lensing, variable “constants” of nature, large scale structure, topology of the universe, brane-world cosmology, early universe models & cosmic microwave background anisotropies, inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation, gamma ray burst modeling, supernovas, global structure, singularities, cosmic censorship, chaos, Einstein–Maxwell systems, inertial forces, gravitomagnetism, wormholes & time machines, exact solutions of Einstein's equations, gravitational waves, gravitational wave detectors & data analysis, precision gravitational measurements, history of relativity, quantum gravity & loop quantum gravity, Casimir effect, quantum cosmology, strings & branes, self-gravitating systems, gamma ray astronomy, cosmic rays, gamma ray bursts and quasars. Sample Chapter(s) Space-Time from the Spectral Point of View (467k) Contents: Space-Time from the Spectral Point of View (Ali H Chamseddine and Alain Connes)The Formation of Black Holes in General Relativity (Demetrios Christodoulou)Matching Conditions in Relativistic Astrophysics (Hernando Quevedo)Black Holes as a Source of Information (Juan Maldacena)Black Hole Microstate Counting and Its Macroscopic Counterpart (Ipsita Mandal and Ashoke Sen)Transplanckian String Collisions: An Update (Gabriele Veneziano)Ultraviolet Divergences and Scale-Dependent Gravitational Couplings (Herbert W Hamber)The Black Hole Stability Problem for Linear Scalar Perturbations (Mihalis Dafermos and Igor Rodnianski)The Global Network of Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors (David H Reitze)Analytical Relativity of Black Holes (Thibault Damour)Detection of Gravitational Waves Using Pulsar Timing (Richard N Manchester)Relativistic Spin-Precession in Binary Pulsars (Michael Kramer)Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts: 10 Years of Observations (Massimo Della Valle)Gamma-Ray Bursts as Relativistic Objects (Tsvi Piran)Fundamental Physics from Black Holes, Neutron Stars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (Remo Ruffini)The Fascinating TeV Sky (Felix Aharonian)Galaxy Clusters and Their Central Supermassive Black Holes: Case of M87 (Eugene Churazov, Sergey Sazonov, Rashid Sunyaev, William Forman, Christine Jones and Hans Böhringer)Intergalactic Shock Fronts (Maxim Markevitch)Studies of Dark Energy with X-Ray Observations of Galaxy Clusters (Alexey Vikhlinin)and other papers Keywords:General Relativity;Gravitation;Astrophysics;Quantum Gravity;Particle Physics;Cosmology;Theoretical Physics

Author : Sara Seager
ISBN : 9780816529452
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.38 MB
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For the first time in human history, we know for certain the existence of planets around other stars. Now the fastest-growing field in space science, the time is right for this fundamental source book on the topic which will lay the foundation for its continued growth. Exoplanets serves as both an introduction for the non-specialist and a foundation for the techniques and equations used in exoplanet observation by those dedicated to the field.

Author : Peter Schneider
ISBN : 9783540303107
Genre : Science
File Size : 39.93 MB
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The observation, in 1919 by A.S. Eddington and collaborators, of the gra- tational de?ection of light by the Sun proved one of the many predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity: The Sun was the ?rst example of a gravitational lens. In 1936, Albert Einstein published an article in which he suggested - ing stars as gravitational lenses. A year later, Fritz Zwicky pointed out that galaxies would act as lenses much more likely than stars, and also gave a list of possible applications, as a means to determine the dark matter content of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It was only in 1979 that the ?rst example of an extragalactic gravitational lens was provided by the observation of the distant quasar QSO 0957+0561, by D. Walsh, R.F. Carswell, and R.J. Weymann. A few years later, the ?rst lens showing images in the form of arcs was detected. The theory, observations, and applications of gravitational lensing cons- tute one of the most rapidly growing branches of astrophysics. The gravi- tional de?ection of light generated by mass concentrations along a light path producesmagni?cation,multiplicity,anddistortionofimages,anddelaysp- ton propagation from one line of sight relative to another. The huge amount of scienti?c work produced over the last decade on gravitational lensing has clearly revealed its already substantial and wide impact, and its potential for future astrophysical applications.

Since 1975, the triennial Marcel Grossmann Meetings have been organized in order to provide opportunities for discussing recent advances in gravitation, general relativity and relativisitic field theories, emphasizing mathematical foundations, physical predictions, and experimental tests.The proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossmann Meeting include the invited papers given at the plenary sessions, the summaries of the parallel sessions, the contributed papers presented at the parallel sessions, and the evening public lectures.The authors of these papers discuss many of the recent theoretical, observational, and experimental developments that have significant implications for the fields of physics, cosmology, and relativistic astrophysics.

Author : Vladimir A. Marchenko
ISBN : 0817643516
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 51.77 MB
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A comprehensive study of homogenized problems, focusing on the construction of nonstandard models Details a method for modeling processes in microinhomogeneous media (radiophysics, filtration theory, rheology, elasticity theory, and other domains) Complete proofs of all main results, numerous examples Classroom text or comprehensive reference for graduate students, applied mathematicians, physicists, and engineers