Natural Moralities A Defense Of Pluralistic Relativism

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Natural Moralities

Author : David B Wong
ISBN : 0199724849
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 27.81 MB
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In this book, David B. Wong defends an ambitious and important new version of moral relativism. He does not espouse the type of relativism that says anything goes, but he does start with a relativist stance against alternative theories such that there need not be only one universal truth. Wong proposes that there can be a plurality of true moralities existing across different traditions and cultures, all with one core human question as to how we can all live together.
Category: Philosophy

Natural Moralities A Defense Of Pluralistic Relativism

Author : Department of Philosophy Duke University David B. Wong Professor and Chair
ISBN : 9780198041566
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 28.34 MB
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David B. Wong proposes that there can be a plurality of true moralities, moralities that exist across different traditions and cultures, all of which address facets of the same problem: how we are to live well together. Wong examines a wide array of positions and texts within the Western canon as well as in Chinese philosophy, and draws on philosophy, psychology, evolutionary theory, history, and literature, to make a case for the importance of pluralism in moral life, and to establish the virtues of acceptance and accommodation. Wong's point is that there is no single value or principle or ordering of values and principles that offers a uniquely true path for human living, but variations according to different contexts that carry within them a common core of human values. We should thus be modest about our own morality, learn from other approaches, and accommodate different practices in our pluralistic society.
Category: Philosophy

Moral Relativism And Chinese Philosophy

Author : Yang Xiao
ISBN : 9781438450957
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 40.53 MB
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A wide-ranging consideration of the work of contemporary ethicist David Wong. Original, influential, and often controversial, ethicist David Wong defends forms of moral relativism. His 1984 Moral Relativity was a study of this concept, and his 2006 Natural Moralities presented a new and sophisticated account of it. Wong’s vision is of a pluralistic moral relativism; he does not defend all forms of relativism but evaluates what moralities may be true. His singular philosophy reflects his deep knowledge of Confucian and Daoist thought. In this book, moral philosophers and scholars of Chinese thought debate ideas central to Wong’s work and Wong responds to them. The discussion ranges widely, including exploring Wong’s thought on naturalism, criteria for moralities, the principle of charity, moral authority, and the concept of community, and looking at his readings of Xunzi and Zhuangzi. Wong’s nuanced and forceful responses clarify and develop further arguments in his work. These engaging and critical exchanges between Wong and his critics illuminate not only Wong’s thought, but also contemporary ethical theory and Chinese philosophy
Category: Philosophy

The Routledge Handbook Of Philosophy Of Relativism

Author : Martin Kusch
ISBN : 9781351052290
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32.43 MB
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Relativism can be found in all philosophical traditions and subfields of philosophy. It is also a central idea in the social sciences, the humanities, religion and politics. This is the first volume to map relativistic motifs in all areas of philosophy, synchronically and diachronically. It thereby provides essential intellectual tools for thinking about contemporary issues like cultural diversity, the plurality of the sciences, or the scope of moral values. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism is an outstanding major reference source on this fundamental topic. The 57 chapters by a team of international contributors are divided into nine parts: Relativism in non-Western philosophical traditions Relativism in Western philosophical traditions Relativism in ethics Relativism in political and legal philosophy Relativism in epistemology Relativism in metaphysics Relativism in philosophy of science Relativism in philosophy of language and mind Relativism in other areas of philosophy. Essential reading for students and researchers in all branches of philosophy, this handbook will also be of interest to those in related subjects such as politics, religion, sociology, cultural studies and literature.
Category: Philosophy

Foundation For A Natural Morality

Author : Edmund Wall
ISBN : 9781498503013
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 52.99 MB
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This book examines the foundations of morality and criticizes various philosophical justifications that have been offered for basic moral principles or values throughout the years. This book introduces and defends what is designed to be a sure justification for a natural morality and its basic moral principles.
Category: Philosophy

Ethics A Pluralistic Approach To Moral Theory

Author : Lawrence M. Hinman
ISBN : 9781133710974
Genre : Education
File Size : 55.52 MB
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ETHICS: A PLURALISTIC APPROACH TO MORAL THEORY, FIFTH EDITION provides a comprehensive yet clear introduction to the main traditions in ethical thought, including virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontology. Additionally, the book presents a conceptual framework of ethical pluralism to help students understand the relationship among various theories. Lawrence Hinman, one of today's most respected and accomplished educators in ethics and philosophy education, presents a text that gives students plentiful opportunities to explore ethical theory and their own responses to them, using fascinating features such as the Ethical Inventory sections that appear at the beginning and the end of the text. End-of-chapter discussion questions, and the use of current issues and movies help students retain what they've learned and truly comprehend the subject matter. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Category: Education

The Ethical Foundations Of Early Daoism

Author : Jung H. Lee
ISBN : 9781137384867
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61.30 MB
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The Ethical Foundations of Early Daoism: Zhuangzi's Unique Moral Vision argues that we can read early Daoist texts as works of moral philosophy that speak to perennial concerns about the well-lived life in the context of the Way. Lee argues that we can interpret early Daoism as an ethics of attunement.
Category: Philosophy

Facing Relativism

Author : Alyssa Luboff
ISBN : 9783030433413
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 30.98 MB
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This book tackles the difficult task of defending relativism in the age of science. It succeeds where others have failed by combining the rigor of analytic philosophy with the first-hand insights of anthropological experience. Typically, an anthropologist’s work on relativism offers rich examples of cultural diversity, but lacks philosophical rigor, while a philosopher’s work on relativism offers rigorous argumentation, but lacks rich anthropological examples. Facing Relativism, written by a North American philosopher who lived in the Ecuadorian rainforest, does both. Relativism at a global scale is a view that our claims about the world, both theoretical and practical, are evaluable only relative to a context shaped by factors such as culture, history, language, and environment – or, “a way of life.” It can be at once intuitive and disturbing. While we might expect a way of life to exert some influence on our claims, relativism seems to move to the overly strong conclusion that all of our claims about what is true or good must merely be expressions of cultural bias. It easily opens itself to a host of charges, including paradox and self-contradiction. Facing Relativism argues that such problems arise largely from a failure to situate the view within the context that has, throughout its long history, been its inspiration: the experience – whether through literature, the imagination, or direct anthropological contact – of deeply engaging with a very different way of life. By starting with a careful analysis of the experience of deep engagement, this book shows that relativism is neither as incoherent nor as alarming as we tend to think. In fact, it might just offer the tools we need to face these times of global crisis and change. Alyssa Luboff has produced an exceptional defense of a cultural relativism that recognizes how the epistemic and the ethical intertwine in a way of life. Drawing from her deep engagement over many years with the Chachi and traditional Afro-Ecuadorian people, she provides vivid and compelling examples of how one can come to understand another way of life as well-reasoned, coherent, and integrated, as challenging to one’s own commitments at the same time that one challenges it. Luboff combines her deep engagement with command of the relevant philosophical and anthropological literature. She presents the major arguments against relativism in a sympathetic and generous way, and carefully responds with a sophisticated relativism that acknowledges how the world resists and responds to different conceptual shapings of it. This book is beautifully written and will engage both the academic specialist and the intelligent general reader. – David Wong, Duke University By the time her brilliant faceoff is over, philosophical relativism will never again be seen as a straw man. – Richard A. Shweder, University of Chicago This book will interest readers who seek an astute account of how the pursuit of “truth” – whether relative or absolute – enters into practices of power. Luboff ’s treatment is impressive. – Michael Krausz, Bryn Mawr College and Linacre College, Oxford University
Category: Philosophy

Foundations For Moral Relativism

Author : J. David Velleman
ISBN : 9781783740321
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 58.42 MB
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In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral worlds without, as Velleman puts it, "moral black holes”. The six self-standing chapters discuss such diverse topics as online avatars and virtual worlds, lying in Russian and truth-telling in Quechua, the pleasure of solitude and the fear of absurdity. Accessibly written, this book presupposes no prior training in philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

The Moral Philosophy Of Bernard Williams

Author : Alexandra Perry
ISBN : 9781443866002
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 26.37 MB
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Bernard Williams (1929–2003) is one of the most influential philosophers of the past 100 years, with work ranging from meta-ethics to philosophy of mind to reflections on pop culture. Williams wrote with a deep sensitivity to the limitations in our knowledge, and an optimistic outlook on the prospects that we have, nonetheless, for social and moral progress. If Williams was right, we still have much to learn from the Classical world, and much of the responsibility that intellectuals have relates to the need to interpret and apply that knowledge. But Williams was not stuck in the past, and he did not advocate a rejection of science or modernity. Instead, Williams argued that there is often more knowledge around us than we realize, and more opportunity than we realize for refinements in our basic ideas about persons, ethics, and politics. This anthology showcases some of the best, and most recent, work from scholars working through some of the problems that Williams identified. As Williams might have expected, there is a great deal of disagreement on selected points, and even on the particular approach used. But in their commitment to a reflective and always somewhat skeptical outlook, the authors here continue a tradition that Williams felt was vital.
Category: Philosophy

Ethics The Basics 2nd Edition

Author : John Mizzoni
ISBN : 9781119150695
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 77.32 MB
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Updated and revised, Ethics: The Basics, Second Edition, introduces students to fundamental ethical concepts, principles, theories, and traditions while providing them with the conceptual tools necessary to think critically about ethical issues. Introduces students to core philosophical problems in ethics in a uniquely reader-friendly manner Lays out clearly and simply a rich collection of ethical concepts, principles, theories, and traditions that are prevalent in today’s society Considers western and non-western viewpoints and religious interpretations of ethical principles Offers a framework for students to think about and navigate through an array of philosophical questions about ethics
Category: Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Ethics

Author : Roger Crisp
ISBN : 9780191655753
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 36.85 MB
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Philosophical ethics consists in the human endeavour to answer rationally the fundamental question of how we should live. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics explores the history of philosophical ethics in the western tradition from Homer until the present day. It provides a broad overview of the views of many of the main thinkers, schools, and periods, and includes in addition essays on topics such as autonomy and impartiality. The authors are international leaders in their field, and use their expertise and specialist knowledge to illuminate the relevance of their work to discussions in contemporary ethics. The essays are specially written for this volume, and in each case introduce the reader to the main lines of interpretation and criticism that have arisen in the professional history of philosophy over the past two or three decades.
Category: Philosophy

The Heart Of Human Rights

Author : Allen Buchanan
ISBN : 9780199325382
Genre : Law
File Size : 39.95 MB
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This book provides a moral assessment of the heart of the modern human rights enterprise: the system of international legal human rights. Any attempt to achieve a moral assessment of that enterprise must first evaluate the system of international legal human rights, which includes both legal norms and the institutions that create, interpret, and implement them.
Category: Law

Beyond The Troubled Water Of Shifei

Author : Lin Ma
ISBN : 9781438474830
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 50.89 MB
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Offers the first focused study of the shifei debates of the Warring States period in ancient China and challenges the imposition of Western conceptual categories onto these debates. In recent decades, a growing concern in studies in Chinese intellectual history is that Chinese classics have been forced into systems of classification prevalent in Western philosophy and thus imperceptibly transformed into examples that echo Western philosophy. Lin Ma and Jaap van Brakel offer a methodology to counter this approach, and illustrate their method by carrying out a transcultural inquiry into the complexities involved in understanding shi and fei and their cognate phrases in the Warring States texts, the Zhuangzi in particular. The authors discuss important features of Zhuangzi’s stance with regard to language-meaning, knowledge-doubt, questioning, equalizing, and his well-known deconstruction of the discourse in ancient China on shifei. Ma and van Brakel suggest that shi and fei apply to both descriptive and prescriptive languages and do not presuppose any fact/value dichotomy, and thus cannot be translated as either true/false or right/wrong. Instead, shi and feican be grasped in terms of a pre-philosophical notion of fitting. Ma and van Brakel also highlight Zhuangzi’s idea of “walking-two-roads” as the most significant component of his stance. In addition, they argue that all of Zhuangzi’s positive recommendations are presented in a language whose meaning is not fixed and that every stance he is committed to remains subject to fundamental questioning as a way of life.
Category: Philosophy

Moral Philosophy A Contemporary Introduction

Author : Daniel R. DeNicola
ISBN : 9781770487048
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 69.74 MB
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Moral Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction is a compact yet comprehensive book offering an explication and critique of the major theories that have shaped philosophical ethics. Engaging with both historical and contemporary figures, this book explores the scope, limits, and requirements of morality. DeNicola traces our various attempts to ground morality: in nature, in religion, in culture, in social contracts, and in aspects of the human person such as reason, emotions, caring, and intuition.
Category: Philosophy

Sites Of Pluralism

Author : Firat Oruc
ISBN : 9780190052713
Genre : History
File Size : 29.77 MB
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Scholars and policymakers, struggling to make sense of the ongoing chaos in the Middle East, have been focusing on the possible causes of the escalation in both inter-state and intra-state conflict. But the Arab Spring has shown the urgent need for new ways to frame difference, both practically and theoretically. Within some policy circles, at the heart of these conflicts lies a fundamental incompatibility between different ethno-linguistic and religious communities; it is held that these divisions impede any form of political resolution or social cohesion. Yet, despite this galvanized public focus on pluralism and 'minorities' within the turbulent Middle East, there has been limited scholarship exploring these tensions. Sites of Pluralism fills this significant gap, going beyond a narrow focus on minority politics to examine the larger canvas of community spheres in the Middle East. Through eight case studies from esteemed experts in law, education, history, architecture, anthropology and political science, this multi-disciplinary volume offers a critical view of the Middle East's diverse, pluralistic fabric: how it has evolved throughout history; how it influences current political, economic and social dynamics; and what possibilities it offers for the future.
Category: History

Philosophies Of Place

Author : Peter D. Hershock
ISBN : 9780824876586
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 55.45 MB
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Humanity takes up space. Human beings, like many other species, also transform spaces. What is perhaps uniquely human is the disposition to qualitatively transform spaces into places that are charged with distinctive kinds of intergenerational significance. There is a profound, felt difference between a house as domestic space and a home as familial place or between the summit of a mountain one has climbed for the first time and the “same” rock pinnacle celebrated in ancestral narratives. Contemporary philosophical uses of the word “place” often pivot on the distinction between “space” and “place” formalized by geographer-philosopher Yi-fu Tuan, who suggested that places incorporate the experiences and aspirations of a people over the course of their moral and aesthetic engagement with sites and locations. While spaces afford possibilities for different kinds of presence—physical, emotional, cognitive, dramatic, spiritual—places emerge as different ways of being present, fuse over time, and saturate a locale with distinctively collaborative patterns of significance. This approach to issues of place, however, is emblematic of what Edward S. Casey has argued are convictions about the primacy of absolute space and time that evolved along with the progressive dominance of the scientific imagination and modern imaginations of the universal. The recent reappearance of place in Western philosophy represents a turn away from abstract and a priori reasoning and back toward phenomenal experience and the primacy of embodied and emplaced intelligence. Places are enacted through the sustainably shared practices of mutually-responsive and mutually-vulnerable agents and are as numerous in kind as we are divergent in the patterns of values and intentions. The contributors to this volume draw on resources from Asian, European, and North American traditions of thought to engage in intercultural reflection on the significance of place in philosophy and of the place of philosophy itself in the cultural, social, economic, and political domains of contemporary life. The conversation of place that results explores the meaning of intercultural philosophy, the critical interplay of place and personal identity, the meaning of appropriate emplacement, the shared place of politics and religion, and the nature of the emotionally emplaced body.
Category: Philosophy

A Companion To Political Philosophy Methods Tools Topics

Author : Antonella Besussi
ISBN : 9781317188681
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 76.33 MB
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of the key concepts and issues of contemporary political philosophy, providing an essential reference work for scholars and advanced students. It is structured in three parts, covering methodological issues; tools and argumentative strategies employed by political philosophy; and concepts and topics key to the discipline. Expert authors from around the world have written twenty chapters in a consistent and engaging style. Each chapter is thoroughly cross-referenced allowing students to appreciate how methodological issues relate to each other, and how methodology and argumentative tools affect the way substantial issues are addressed. The chapters are supplemented by further reading lists and selected bibliographies to aid further research. The companion will be required reading for masters and post-doctoral students, providing them with the appropriate tools for approaching political philosophy in a more thoughtful way, and showing how substantive topics are addressed within different perspectives and paradigms. The companion also provides upper-level undergraduates with a sophisticated introduction to the relevant problems and challenges political philosophy addresses.
Category: Philosophy

The Philosophy Of Human Rights

Author : Gerhard Ernst
ISBN : 9783110263886
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 42.57 MB
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The notion of “human rights” is widely used in political and moral discussions. The core idea, that all human beings have some inalienable basic rights, is appealing and has an eminently practical function: It allows moral criticism of various wrongs and calls for action in order to prevent them. On the other hand it is unclear what exactly a human right is. Human rights lack a convincing conceptual foundation that would be able to compel the wrong-doer to accept human rights claims as well-founded. Hence the practical function faces theoretical doubts. The present collection takes up the tension between the wide political use of human rights claims and the intellectual skepticism about them. In particular two major issues are identified that call for conceptual clarification in order to better understand human rights claims both in theory and in practice: the question of how to justify human rights and the tension between universal normative claims and particular moralities.
Category: Philosophy

When Doing The Right Thing Is Impossible

Author : Lisa Tessman
ISBN : 9780190657581
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 52.10 MB
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Suppose that in an emergency evacuation of a hospital after a flood, not all of the patients can make it out alive. You are the doctor faced with the choice between abandoning these patients to die alone and in pain, or injecting them with a lethal dose of drugs, without consent, so that they die peacefully. Perhaps no one will be able to blame you whatever you decide, but, whichever action you choose, you will remain burdened by guilt. What happens, in cases like this, when, no matter what you do, you are destined for moral failure? What happens when there is no available means of doing the right thing? Human life is filled with such impossible moral decisions. These choices and case studies that demonstrate them form the focus of Lisa Tessman's arresting and provocative work. Many philosophers believe that there are simply no situations in which what you morally ought to do is something that you can't do, because they think that you can't be required to do something unless it's actually in your power to do it. Despite this, real life presents us daily with situations in which we feel that we have failed morally even when no right action would have been possible. Lisa Tessman boldly argues that sometimes we feel this way because we have encountered an 'impossible moral requirement.' Drawing on philosophy, empirical psychology, and evolutionary theory, When Doing the Right Thing Is Impossible explores how and why human beings have constructed moral requirements to be binding even when they are impossible to fulfill.
Category: Philosophy