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Based on a popular course taught by the late Gian-Carlo Rota of MIT, with many new topics covered as well, Introduction to Probability with R presents R programs and animations to provide an intuitive yet rigorous understanding of how to model natural phenomena from a probabilistic point of view. Although the R programs are small in length, they are just as sophisticated and powerful as longer programs in other languages. This brevity makes it easy for students to become proficient in R. This calculus-based introduction organizes the material around key themes. One of the most important themes centers on viewing probability as a way to look at the world, helping students think and reason probabilistically. The text also shows how to combine and link stochastic processes to form more complex processes that are better models of natural phenomena. In addition, it presents a unified treatment of transforms, such as Laplace, Fourier, and z; the foundations of fundamental stochastic processes using entropy and information; and an introduction to Markov chains from various viewpoints. Each chapter includes a short biographical note about a contributor to probability theory, exercises, and selected answers. The book has an accompanying website with more information.

Author : Eric A. Suess
ISBN : 9780387402734
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.91 MB
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The first seven chapters use R for probability simulation and computation, including random number generation, numerical and Monte Carlo integration, and finding limiting distributions of Markov Chains with both discrete and continuous states. Applications include coverage probabilities of binomial confidence intervals, estimation of disease prevalence from screening tests, parallel redundancy for improved reliability of systems, and various kinds of genetic modeling. These initial chapters can be used for a non-Bayesian course in the simulation of applied probability models and Markov Chains. Chapters 8 through 10 give a brief introduction to Bayesian estimation and illustrate the use of Gibbs samplers to find posterior distributions and interval estimates, including some examples in which traditional methods do not give satisfactory results. WinBUGS software is introduced with a detailed explanation of its interface and examples of its use for Gibbs sampling for Bayesian estimation. No previous experience using R is required. An appendix introduces R, and complete R code is included for almost all computational examples and problems (along with comments and explanations). Noteworthy features of the book are its intuitive approach, presenting ideas with examples from biostatistics, reliability, and other fields; its large number of figures; and its extraordinarily large number of problems (about a third of the pages), ranging from simple drill to presentation of additional topics. Hints and answers are provided for many of the problems. These features make the book ideal for students of statistics at the senior undergraduate and at the beginning graduate levels.

Author : Jane M. Horgan
ISBN : 9781119536987
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 43.88 MB
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Provides a comprehensive introduction to probability with an emphasis on computing-related applications This self-contained new and extended edition outlines a first course in probability applied to computer-related disciplines. As in the first edition, experimentation and simulation are favoured over mathematical proofs. The freely down-loadable statistical programming language R is used throughout the text, not only as a tool for calculation and data analysis, but also to illustrate concepts of probability and to simulate distributions. The examples in Probability with R: An Introduction with Computer Science Applications, Second Edition cover a wide range of computer science applications, including: testing program performance; measuring response time and CPU time; estimating the reliability of components and systems; evaluating algorithms and queuing systems. Chapters cover: The R language; summarizing statistical data; graphical displays; the fundamentals of probability; reliability; discrete and continuous distributions; and more. This second edition includes: improved R code throughout the text, as well as new procedures, packages and interfaces; updated and additional examples, exercises and projects covering recent developments of computing; an introduction to bivariate discrete distributions together with the R functions used to handle large matrices of conditional probabilities, which are often needed in machine translation; an introduction to linear regression with particular emphasis on its application to machine learning using testing and training data; a new section on spam filtering using Bayes theorem to develop the filters; an extended range of Poisson applications such as network failures, website hits, virus attacks and accessing the cloud; use of new allocation functions in R to deal with hash table collision, server overload and the general allocation problem. The book is supplemented with a Wiley Book Companion Site featuring data and solutions to exercises within the book. Primarily addressed to students of computer science and related areas, Probability with R: An Introduction with Computer Science Applications, Second Edition is also an excellent text for students of engineering and the general sciences. Computing professionals who need to understand the relevance of probability in their areas of practice will find it useful.

Author : Sheldon M. Ross
ISBN : 9780128177471
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46.2 MB
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Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, Sixth Edition, uniquely emphasizes how probability informs statistical problems, thus helping readers develop an intuitive understanding of the statistical procedures commonly used by practicing engineers and scientists. Utilizing real data from actual studies across life science, engineering, computing and business, this useful introduction supports reader comprehension through a wide variety of exercises and examples. End-of-chapter reviews of materials highlight key ideas, also discussing the risks associated with the practical application of each material. In the new edition, coverage includes information on Big Data and the use of R. This book is intended for upper level undergraduate and graduate students taking a probability and statistics course in engineering programs as well as those across the biological, physical and computer science departments. It is also appropriate for scientists, engineers and other professionals seeking a reference of foundational content and application to these fields. Provides the author’s uniquely accessible and engaging approach as tailored for the needs of Engineers and Scientists Features examples that use significant real data from actual studies across life science, engineering, computing and business Includes new coverage to support the use of R Offers new chapters on big data techniques

Author : R. Meester
ISBN : 3764387238
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.24 MB
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Compactly written, but nevertheless very readable, appealing to intuition, this introduction to probability theory is an excellent textbook for a one-semester course for undergraduates in any direction that uses probabilistic ideas. Technical machinery is only introduced when necessary. The route is rigorous but does not use measure theory. The text is illustrated with many original and surprising examples and problems taken from classical applications like gambling, geometry or graph theory, as well as from applications in biology, medicine, social sciences, sports, and coding theory. Only first-year calculus is required.

Author : Robert P. Dobrow
ISBN : 9781118589441
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 67.61 MB
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An introduction to probability at the undergraduate level Chance and randomness are encountered on a daily basis. Authoredby a highly qualified professor in the field, Probability: WithApplications and R delves into the theories and applicationsessential to obtaining a thorough understanding of probability. With real-life examples and thoughtful exercises from fields asdiverse as biology, computer science, cryptology, ecology, publichealth, and sports, the book is accessible for a variety ofreaders. The book’s emphasis on simulation through the use ofthe popular R software language clarifies and illustrates keycomputational and theoretical results. Probability: With Applications and R helps readersdevelop problem-solving skills and delivers an appropriate mix oftheory and application. The book includes: Chapters covering first principles, conditional probability,independent trials, random variables, discrete distributions,continuous probability, continuous distributions, conditionaldistribution, and limits An early introduction to random variables and Monte Carlosimulation and an emphasis on conditional probability,conditioning, and developing probabilistic intuition An R tutorial with example script files Many classic and historical problems of probability as well asnontraditional material, such as Benford’s law, power-lawdistributions, and Bayesian statistics A topics section with suitable material for projects andexplorations, such as random walk on graphs, Markov chains, andMarkov chain Monte Carlo Chapter-by-chapter summaries and hundreds of practicalexercises Probability: With Applications and R is an ideal text fora beginning course in probability at the undergraduate level.

Author : Ronald D. Fricker, Jr.
ISBN : 1499684851
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 38.85 MB
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This is the first three chapters of a textbook for data scientists who want to improve how they work with, analyze, and extract information from data. The focus of the textbook is how to appropriately apply statistical methods, both simple and sophisticated, to 21st century data and problems. This book contains the first three chapters: Introduction -- Data Science and Statistics, Descriptive Statistics, and Data Visualization -- as well as the book front matter. Subsequent chapters will be published in 3- to 5-chapter sets as they become available.The textbook is intended for current and future data scientists, and for anyone interested in deriving information from data. It requires some mathematical sophistication on the part of the reader, as well as comfort using computers and statistical software.Data science is a new field that has arisen to exploit the proliferation of data in the modern world. Mathematical statistics dates back to the mid-18th century, where the field began as the systematic collection of population and economic data by nations. The modern practice of statistics – which includes the collection, summarization, and analysis of data – dates to the early 20th century. Today statistical methods are widely used by governments, businesses and other organizations, as well as by all scientific disciplines.It has been said that a data scientist must have a better grasp of statistics than the average computer scientist and a better grasp of programming than the average statistician. This book will give data scientists a firm foundation in statistics.

The book covers basic concepts such as random experiments, probability axioms, conditional probability, and counting methods, single and multiple random variables (discrete, continuous, and mixed), as well as moment-generating functions, characteristic functions, random vectors, and inequalities; limit theorems and convergence; introduction to Bayesian and classical statistics; random processes including processing of random signals, Poisson processes, discrete-time and continuous-time Markov chains, and Brownian motion; simulation using MATLAB and R.

Author : Timothy C. Haas
ISBN : 9781118636237
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 77.39 MB
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Explores computer-intensive probability and statistics for ecosystem management decision making Simulation is an accessible way to explain probability and stochastic model behavior to beginners. This book introduces probability and statistics to future and practicing ecosystem managers by providing a comprehensive treatment of these two areas. The author presents a self-contained introduction for individuals involved in monitoring, assessing, and managing ecosystems and features intuitive, simulation-based explanations of probabilistic and statistical concepts. Mathematical programming details are provided for estimating ecosystem model parameters with Minimum Distance, a robust and computer-intensive method. The majority of examples illustrate how probability and statistics can be applied to ecosystem management challenges. There are over 50 exercises – making this book suitable for a lecture course in a natural resource and/or wildlife management department, or as the main text in a program of self-study. Key features: Reviews different approaches to wildlife and ecosystem management and inference. Uses simulation as an accessible way to explain probability and stochastic model behavior to beginners. Covers material from basic probability through to hierarchical Bayesian models and spatial/ spatio-temporal statistical inference. Provides detailed instructions for using R, along with complete R programs to recreate the output of the many examples presented. Provides an introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) along with examples from Quantum GIS, a free GIS software package. A companion website featuring all R code and data used throughout the book. Solutions to all exercises are presented along with an online intelligent tutoring system that supports readers who are using the book for self-study.

Author : K.R. Parthasarathy
ISBN : 9789386279279
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 47.81 MB
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According to a remark attributed to Mark Kac 'Probability Theory is a measure theory with a soul'. This book with its choice of proofs, remarks, examples and exercises has been prepared taking both these aesthetic and practical aspects into account.

Probability and Statistics are studied by most science students. Many current texts in the area are just cookbooks and, as a result, students do not know why they perform the methods they are taught, or why the methods work. This book readdresses these shortcomings; by using examples, often from real-life and using real data, the authors show how the fundamentals of probabilistic and statistical theories arise intuitively. There are numerous quick exercises to give direct feedback to students, and over 350 exercises, half of which have answers, of which half have full solutions. A website gives access to the data files used in the text, and, for instructors, the remaining solutions. The only prerequisite is a first course in calculus.

Author : Franz Huber
ISBN : 9780190845414
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 27.45 MB
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A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction is a textbook on the mathematics of the probability calculus and its applications in philosophy. On the mathematical side, the textbook introduces these parts of logic and set theory that are needed for a precise formulation of the probability calculus. On the philosophical side, the main focus is on the problem of induction and its reception in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Particular emphasis is placed on the means-end approach to the justification of inductive inference rules. In addition, the book discusses the major interpretations of probability. These are philosophical accounts of the nature of probability that interpret the mathematical structure of the probability calculus. Besides the classical and logical interpretation, they include the interpretation of probability as chance, degree of belief, and relative frequency. The Bayesian interpretation of probability as degree of belief locates probability in a subject's mind. It raises the question why her degrees of belief ought to obey the probability calculus. In contrast to this, chance and relative frequency belong to the external world. While chance is postulated by theory, relative frequencies can be observed empirically. A Logical Introduction to Probability and Induction aims to equip students with the ability to successfully carry out arguments. It begins with elementary deductive logic and uses it as basis for the material on probability and induction. Throughout the textbook results are carefully proved using the inference rules introduced at the beginning, and students are asked to solve problems in the form of 50 exercises. An instructor's manual contains the solutions to these exercises as well as suggested exam questions. The book does not presuppose any background in mathematics, although sections 10.3-10.9 on statistics are technically sophisticated and optional. The textbook is suitable for lower level undergraduate courses in philosophy and logic.

Author : George G. Roussas
ISBN : 9780128001981
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46.14 MB
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Introduction to Probability, Second Edition, discusses probability theory in a mathematically rigorous, yet accessible way. This one-semester basic probability textbook explains important concepts of probability while providing useful exercises and examples of real world applications for students to consider. This edition demonstrates the applicability of probability to many human activities with examples and illustrations. After introducing fundamental probability concepts, the book proceeds to topics including conditional probability and independence; numerical characteristics of a random variable; special distributions; joint probability density function of two random variables and related quantities; joint moment generating function, covariance and correlation coefficient of two random variables; transformation of random variables; the Weak Law of Large Numbers; the Central Limit Theorem; and statistical inference. Each section provides relevant proofs, followed by exercises and useful hints. Answers to even-numbered exercises are given and detailed answers to all exercises are available to instructors on the book companion site. This book will be of interest to upper level undergraduate students and graduate level students in statistics, mathematics, engineering, computer science, operations research, actuarial science, biological sciences, economics, physics, and some of the social sciences. Demonstrates the applicability of probability to many human activities with examples and illustrations Discusses probability theory in a mathematically rigorous, yet accessible way Each section provides relevant proofs, and is followed by exercises and useful hints Answers to even-numbered exercises are provided and detailed answers to all exercises are available to instructors on the book companion site

Author : Charles Miller Grinstead
ISBN : 9780821894149
Genre : Probabilities
File Size : 73.48 MB
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This text is designed for an introductory probability course at the university level for sophomores, juniors, and seniors in mathematics, physical and social sciences, engineering, and computer science. It presents a thorough treatment of ideas and techniques necessary for a firm understanding of the subject. The text is also recommended for use in discrete probability courses. The material is organized so that the discrete and continuous probability discussions are presented in a separate, but parallel, manner. This organization does not emphasize an overly rigorous or formal view of probability and therefore offers some strong pedagogical value. Hence, the discrete discussions can sometimes serve to motivate the more abstract continuous probability discussions. Features: Key ideas are developed in a somewhat leisurely style, providing a variety of interesting applications to probability and showing some nonintuitive ideas. Over 600 exercises provide the opportunity for practicing skills and developing a sound understanding of ideas. Numerous historical comments deal with the development of discrete probability. The text includes many computer programs that illustrate the algorithms or the methods of computation for important problems. The book is a beautiful introduction to probability theory at the beginning level. The book contains a lot of examples and an easy development of theory without any sacrifice of rigor, keeping the abstraction to a minimal level. It is indeed a valuable addition to the study of probability theory. --Zentralblatt MATH