Hydraulic Fracturing In Unconventional Reservoirs

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Hydraulic Fracturing In Unconventional Reservoirs

Author : Hoss Belyadi
ISBN : 9780128176665
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.8 MB
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Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs: Theories, Operations, and Economic Analysis, Second Edition, presents the latest operations and applications in all facets of fracturing. Enhanced to include today’s newest technologies, such as machine learning and the monitoring of field performance using pressure and rate transient analysis, this reference gives engineers the full spectrum of information needed to run unconventional field developments. Covering key aspects, including fracture clean-up, expanded material on refracturing, and a discussion on economic analysis in unconventional reservoirs, this book keeps today's petroleum engineers updated on the critical aspects of unconventional activity. Helps readers understand drilling and production technology and operations in shale gas through real-field examples Covers various topics on fractured wells and the exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons in one complete reference Presents the latest operations and applications in all facets of fracturing
Category: Technology & Engineering

Unconventional Reservoir Rate Transient Analysis

Author : Christopher R. Clarkson
ISBN : 9780323901178
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.88 MB
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Unconventional Reservoir Rate-Transient Analysis: Volume One, Fundamentals, Analysis Methods and Workflow provides a comprehensive review of RTA methods, helping petroleum engineers and geoscientists understand how to confidently apply RTA to tight reservoirs exhibiting single-phase flow of oil and gas. The book provides practitioners with an overview of the basic concepts used in RTA, including flow-regime identification and application of straight-line analysis, type-curve analysis, and model history-matching approaches that are applicable to low-complexity, tight reservoirs exhibiting single-phase flow of oil and gas. Workflow steps are discussed and illustrated in detail for hydraulically fractured vertical wells and multi-fractured horizontal wells. Supported by many real-world field examples, this comprehensive resource supplies today’s petroleum engineers and geoscientists with an overview of RTA methods as applied to tight reservoirs. A companion text, Unconventional Reservoir Rate-Transient Analysis: Volume Two, Application to Complex Reservoirs, Exploration and Development bridges a critical knowledge gap to help practicing petroleum engineers and geoscientists understand how RTA methods can be adopted and applied to today’s unconventional reservoirs. Reviews key concepts and analysis methods used in modern rate-transient analysis (RTA) as applied to low-permeability ("tight") oil and gas reservoirs Provides a workflow for confident derivation of reservoir/hydraulic fracture properties and hydrocarbon-in-place estimates for wells completed in unconventional reservoirs Includes detailed discussions and illustrations of each step of the workflow using field examples
Category: Science

Mechanics Of Hydraulic Fracturing

Author : Ching H. Yew
ISBN : 0124200036
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.59 MB
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Revised to include current components considered for today's unconventional and multi-fracture grids, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, Second Edition explains one of the most important features for fracture design - the ability to predict the geometry and characteristics of the hydraulically induced fracture. With two-thirds of the world's oil and natural gas reserves committed to unconventional resources, hydraulic fracturing is the best proven well stimulation method to extract these resources from their more remote and complex reservoirs. However, few hydraulic fracture models can properly simulate more complex fractures. Engineers and well designers must understand the underlying mechanics of how fractures are modeled in order to correctly predict and forecast a more advanced fracture network. Updated to accommodate today's fracturing jobs, Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing, Second Edition enables the engineer to: Understand complex fracture networks to maximize completion strategies Recognize and compute stress shadow, which can drastically affect fracture network patterns Optimize completions by properly modeling and more accurately predicting for today's hydraulic fracturing completions Discusses the underlying mechanics of creating a fracture from the wellbore Enhanced to include newer modeling components such as stress shadow and interaction of hydraulic fracture with a natural fracture, which aids in more complex fracture networks Updated experimental studies that apply to today's unconventional fracturing cases
Category: Technology & Engineering

Hydraulic Fracturing In Naturally Fractured Reservoirs And The Impact Of Geomechanics On Microseismicity

Author : Himanshu Yadav
ISBN : OCLC:776608587
Genre :
File Size : 50.75 MB
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Hydraulic fracturing in tight gas and shale gas reservoirs is an essential stimulation technique for production enhancement. Often, hydraulic fracturing induces fracture patterns that are more complex than the planar geometry that has been assumed in the past models. These complex patterns arise as a result of the presence of planes of weakness, faults and/or natural fractures. In this thesis, two different 3D geomechanical models have been developed to simulate the interaction between the hydraulic fracture and the natural fractures, and to observe the impact of geomechanics on the potential microseismicity in these naturally fractured formations. Several cases were studied to observe the effects of natural fracture geometry, fracturing treatment, mechanical properties of the sealed fractures, etc. on the propagation path of the hydraulic fracture in these formations, and were found to be consistent with past experimental results. Moreover, the effects of several parameters including cohesiveness of the sealed natural fractures, mechanical properties of the formation, treatment parameters, etc. have been studied from the potential microseismicity standpoint. It is shown that the impact of geomechanics on potential microseismicity is significant and can influence the desired fracture spacing. In this thesis, the presented model quantifies the extent of potential microseismic volume (MSV) resulting from hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs. The model accounts for random geometries of the weak planes (with different dip and strike) observed in the field. The work presented here shows, for the first time, a fracture treatment can be designed to maximize the MSV, when the fractures form a complicated network of fractures, and in turn influence the desired fracture spacing in horizontal wells. Our work shows that by adjusting the fluid rheology and other treatment parameters, the spatial extent of MSV and the desired fracture spacing can be optimized for a given set of shale properties.

Hydraulic Fracturing Fracking Procedures Issues And Benefits

Author : Okon Obo, PhD
ISBN : 9780986029622
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.97 MB
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Hydraulic Fracturing is a unique oil and gas reservoir stimulation technique that has positioned itself as the industry’s choice for developing Tight/Shale Oil and Gas fields. Together with horizontal well, this technology unlocks impervious shale rocks - releasing crude oil and natural gas that otherwise would not have been possible by using conventional exploration and production methods. This detailed 2nd Edition has many illustrations, giving readers solid foundation in the procedures, issues, benefits, and reverse benefits associated with current shale reservoir development using Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking). Book contents, among others, include a concise explanation on: * Natural Gas/crude oil (Conventional and Unconventional) * Formation Preparation for Hydraulic Fracturing * Well Drilling Process * Well Completion Process (Perforation) * Horizontal Well: The Preferred Well Configuration for Fracking * Hydraulic Fracturing – Procedures, etc. * Offshore Fracking: Quietly on the rise * Common Misconception of Fracking Technique * Environmental Concerns of Hydraulic Fracturing * Benefits and reverse benefits of Hydraulic Fracturing * Winners and losers when oil and gas prices fall * Eco-Friendly Alternatives to Hydraulic Fracturing Those who use this book include Technical/Nontechnical persons, students, and all that are following the trend in the global oil and gas industry. Readers are given a good footing on the procedures, issues, and benefits concerning “Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)”.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Microseismic Imaging Of Hydraulic Fracturing

Author : Shawn Mawell
ISBN : 9781560803157
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.51 MB
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Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracturing: Improved Engineering of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs (SEG Distinguished Instructor Series No. 17) covers the use of microseismic data to enhance engineering design of hydraulic fracturing and well completion. The book, which accompanies the 2014 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, describes the design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of an effective microseismic project. The text includes a tutorial of the basics of hydraulic fracturing, including the geologic and geomechanical factors that control fracture growth. In addition to practical issues associated with collecting and interpreting microseismic data, potential pitfalls and quality-control steps are discussed. Actual case studies are used to demonstrate engineering benefits and improved production through the use of microseismic monitoring. Providing a practical user guide for survey design, quality control, interpretation, and application of microseismic hydraulic fracture monitoring, this book will be of interest to geoscientists and engineers involved in development of unconventional reservoirs.
Category: Science

Flow And Transport Properties Of Unconventional Reservoirs 2018

Author : Jianchao Cai
ISBN : 9783039211166
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82.48 MB
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Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these low-porosity and ultralow-permeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Hydraulic Fracture Modeling

Author : Yu-Shu Wu
ISBN : 9780128129999
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 64.6 MB
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Hydraulic Fracture Modeling delivers all the pertinent technology and solutions in one product to become the go-to source for petroleum and reservoir engineers. Providing tools and approaches, this multi-contributed reference presents current and upcoming developments for modeling rock fracturing including their limitations and problem-solving applications. Fractures are common in oil and gas reservoir formations, and with the ongoing increase in development of unconventional reservoirs, more petroleum engineers today need to know the latest technology surrounding hydraulic fracturing technology such as fracture rock modeling. There is tremendous research in the area but not all located in one place. Covering two types of modeling technologies, various effective fracturing approaches and model applications for fracturing, the book equips today’s petroleum engineer with an all-inclusive product to characterize and optimize today’s more complex reservoirs. Offers understanding of the details surrounding fracturing and fracture modeling technology, including theories and quantitative methods Provides academic and practical perspective from multiple contributors at the forefront of hydraulic fracturing and rock mechanics Provides today’s petroleum engineer with model validation tools backed by real-world case studies
Category: Technology & Engineering

Toward Better Understandings Of Unconventional Reservoirs Rock Mechanical Properties And Hydraulic Fracture Perspectives

Author : Yiwen Gong
ISBN : OCLC:1236837968
Genre : Petroleum engineering
File Size : 80.98 MB
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The advancements of hydraulic fracturing techniques ensure the improved fracture surface areas that are open to fluids flow. The induced microcracks accelerate the fluid communications between fractures and the fracture adjacent rock matrix at fracture surface. In brittle rocks, the generated fracture network puzzles engineers since the induced hydraulic fractures and activated pre-existing fractures challenge the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) characterizations. Furthermore, the necessary engineered justifications of each stage due to lateral heterogeneity of the reservoir and the stress shadow effect (in-situ stress increase along the wellbore) even introduce another level of complexity of the effective fracture drainage complexity. Simultaneous fracture growth becomes difficult, resulting in variations of fracture half lengths, within a stage, and among stages. The failure planes of the rock, from mode I, mode II and the combination of them, are not smooth and parallel; instead, they are usually associated with certain surface roughness and non-planar morphology, which in turn inhibit the ideal Poiseuille flow in the fracture. As a result, the fundamental studies of non-planar and rough complex fracture paths to the proppant transport are essentially inevitable.
Category: Petroleum engineering

Optimization Of Hydraulic Fracture Stages And Sequencing In Unconventional Formations

Author : Ahmed Alzahabi
ISBN : 9781351618229
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30.84 MB
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Shale gas and/or oil play identification is subject to many screening processes for characteristics such as porosity, permeability, and brittleness. Evaluating shale gas and/or oil reservoirs and identifying potential sweet spots (portions of the reservoir rock that have high-quality kerogen content and brittle rock) requires taking into consideration multiple rock, reservoir, and geological parameters that govern production. The early determination of sweet spots for well site selection and fracturing in shale reservoirs is a challenge for many operators. With this limitation in mind, Optimization of Hydraulic Fracture Stages and Sequencing in Unconventional Formations develops an approach to improve the industry’s ability to evaluate shale gas and oil plays and is structured to lead the reader from general shale oil and gas characteristics to detailed sweet-spot classifications. The approach uses a new candidate selection and evaluation algorithm and screening criteria based on key geomechanical, petrophysical, and geochemical parameters and indices to obtain results consistent with existing shale plays and gain insights on the best development strategies going forward. The work introduces new criteria that accurately guide the development process in unconventional reservoirs in addition to reducing uncertainty and cost.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Geophysics For Petroleum Engineers

Author : Fred Aminzadeh
ISBN : 9780128076859
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44.62 MB
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Geophysical methods are being applied that are specifically relevant to the exploration of and production from unconventional reservoirs. While many of the techniques have common applications for both conventional and unconventional reservoirs, there are also some significant differences in focus. Much of the unconventional reservoirs are from shale formations. Characterizing of fracture system in such reservoirs is of prime importance not only to identify the “sweet spots” for well placement but also for optimum drilling and production from such fractured reservoirs. Combining conventional and microearthquake seismic data has proven to improve the characterization process. Another factor for drilling through shale reservoirs is the need for stimulation through hydraulic fracturing. Use of microseismic data for monitoring the frac process has gained prominence in recent years. Different types of design to acquire such geophysical data and to utilize them for multistage fracking process as well as their integration with the conventional seismic data have been developed.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources

Author : Reza Barati
ISBN : 9781119420323
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.57 MB
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A comprehensive textbook presenting techniques for the analysis and characterization of shale plays Significant reserves of hydrocarbons cannot be extracted using conventional methods. Improvements in techniques such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have increased access to unconventional hydrocarbon resources, ushering in the “shale boom” and disrupting the energy sector. Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources: Techniques for Reservoir Engineering Analysis covers the geochemistry, petrophysics, geomechanics, and economics of unconventional shale oil plays. The text uses a step-by-step approach to demonstrate industry-standard workflows for calculating resource volume and optimizing the extraction process. Volume highlights include: Methods for rock and fluid characterization of unconventional shale plays A workflow for analyzing wells with stimulated reservoir volume regions An unconventional approach to understanding of fluid flow through porous media A comprehensive summary of discoveries of massive shale resources worldwide Data from Eagle Ford, Woodford, Wolfcamp, and The Bakken shale plays Examples, homework assignments, projects, and access to supplementary online resources Hands-on teaching materials for use in petroleum engineering software applications The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Category: Science

Machine Learning Guide For Oil And Gas Using Python

Author : Hoss Belyadi
ISBN : 9780128219300
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30.31 MB
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Machine Learning Guide for Oil and Gas Using Python: A Step-by-Step Breakdown with Data, Algorithms, Codes, and Applications delivers a critical training and resource tool to help engineers understand machine learning theory and practice, specifically referencing use cases in oil and gas. The reference moves from explaining how Python works to step-by-step examples of utilization in various oil and gas scenarios, such as well testing, shale reservoirs and production optimization. Petroleum engineers are quickly applying machine learning techniques to their data challenges, but there is a lack of references beyond the math or heavy theory of machine learning. Machine Learning Guide for Oil and Gas Using Python details the open-source tool Python by explaining how it works at an introductory level then bridging into how to apply the algorithms into different oil and gas scenarios. While similar resources are often too mathematical, this book balances theory with applications, including use cases that help solve different oil and gas data challenges. Helps readers understand how open-source Python can be utilized in practical oil and gas challenges Covers the most commonly used algorithms for both supervised and unsupervised learning Presents a balanced approach of both theory and practicality while progressing from introductory to advanced analytical techniques
Category: Computers

Integrated Hydraulic Fracture Placement And Design Optimization In Unconventional Gas Reservoirs

Author : Xiaodan Ma
ISBN : OCLC:881180308
Genre :
File Size : 71.18 MB
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Unconventional reservoir such as tight and shale gas reservoirs has the potential of becoming the main source of cleaner energy in the 21th century. Production from these reservoirs is mainly accomplished through engineered hydraulic fracturing to generate fracture networks that provide the gas flow pathways from the rock matrix to the production wells. While hydraulic fracturing technology has progressed considerably in the last thirty years, designing the fracturing system primarily involves judgments from a team of engineers, geoscientists and geophysicists, without taking advantage of computational tools, such as numerical optimization techniques to improve short-term and long-term reservoir production. This thesis focuses on developing novel optimization algorithms that can be used to improve the design and implementation of hydraulic fracturing in a shale gas reservoir to increase production and the net present value of unconventional assets. In particular, we consider simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) and Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) algorithms, which are proven very efficient in finding nearly optimal solutions. We show that with a judicious choice of control variables (continuous or discrete) we can obtain efficient algorithms for performing hydraulic fracture optimization in unconventional reservoirs. To achieve this, the hydraulic fracture production optimization problem is divided into two aspects: fracture stages placement optimization with fix stage numbers and unknown stage numbers. After check the parameters of fracture model that could be used to simulate future reservoir behavior with a higher degree of confidence, the fracture stages optimization is scheduling the fracturing sequence, and adjusting the fracture stages intensity at different locations, which is similar to well placement problem. In addition to the detailed investigation of the new optimization technique, uncertainty quantification of reservoir properties and its implications on the optimization workflow is also considered in the shale gas reservoir model. Taking into account that shale gas reservoirs are highly heterogeneous systems, stochastic optimization methods are the most suitable framework for hydraulic fracture stages placement. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151913

Unconventional Reservoir Rate Transient Analysis

Author : Clarkson C.R.
ISBN : 9780128097250
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.68 MB
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Rate-transient analysis (RTA) is now one of the most important methods for reservoir and hydraulic fracture characterization used in the petroleum industry for unconventional gas and light oil reservoirs. RTA is also used as the basis for generating a production forecast. However, RTA is based primarily on analytical models that were developed for conventional reservoirs with many simplifying assumptions that often don’t apply to unconventional reservoirs. Unconventional Gas and Light Oil Reservoir Rate-Transient Analysis: Volume 1 - Fundamentals delivers a critical knowledge gap to help practicing reservoir and production engineers understand the unique differences in rate-transient analysis for today’s unconventional reservoirs. Starting with the fundamentals, engineers first understand the basic flow regimes and analysis methods along with the unique reservoir properties of unconventional assets. Then, the chapters progress to more advanced topics such as how to modify and apply RTA methods for each instance of shale oil/gas, coalbed methane, and tight shale oil/gas along with transforming these modified methods into higher quality production forecasting, with emphasis on analytical and semi-analytical methods. Supported by many real-world field examples covering both hydraulic fracturing and unconventional reservoirs to learn from with questions and answers to practice, Unconventional Gas and Light Oil Reservoir Rate-Transient Analysis: Volume 1 - Fundamentals supplies today’s petroleum engineers with a more intelligent approach to today’s more complex reservoirs. Improve reservoir flow-rate workflows specific to unconventional oil and gas reservoirs as well as complex hydraulic fracturing projects Authored by leading researcher and expert in unconventional reservoir RTA Generate stronger production forecasts with guidelines and field examples on how to deal with data uncertainties, poor data quality, and operational upsets
Category: Science

Unconventional Oil And Gas Resources Handbook

Author : Y Zee Ma
ISBN : 0128022388
Genre :
File Size : 64.12 MB
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Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook: Evaluation and Development is a must-have, helpful handbook that brings a wealth of information to engineers and geoscientists. Bridging between subsurface and production, the handbook provides engineers and geoscientists with effective methodology to better define resources and reservoirs. Better reservoir knowledge and innovative technologies are making unconventional resources economically possible, and multidisciplinary approaches in evaluating these resources are critical to successful development. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook takes this approach, covering a wide range of topics for developing these resources including exploration, evaluation, drilling, completion, and production. Topics include theory, methodology, and case histories and will help to improve the understanding,integrated evaluation, and effective development of unconventional resources. Presents methods for a full development cycle of unconventional resources, from exploration through production Explores multidisciplinary integrations for evaluation and development of unconventional resources and covers a broad range of reservoir characterization methods and development scenarios Delivers balanced information with multiple contributors from both academia and industry Provides case histories involving geological analysis, geomechanical analysis, reservoir modeling, hydraulic fracturing treatment, microseismic monitoring, well performance and refracturing for development of unconventional reservoirs

Applied Petroleum Geomechanics

Author : Jon Jincai Zhang
ISBN : 0128148144
Genre :
File Size : 41.8 MB
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Petroleum engineers have a difficult time making the leap between theory of rock mechanics and practical applications surrounding petroleum geomechanics, especially in more complex operations such as hydraulic fracturing. Applied Petroleum Geomechanics provides a bridge between theory and practice as a daily reference with direct industry application. Going beyond the basic fundamentals of rock properties, this guide covers critical field and lab tests along with interpretations that follow within actual drilling operations and worldwide case studies, including abnormal formation pressures from many major petroleum basins. Rounding out with borehole stability solutions and the geomechanics surrounding hydraulic fracturing and unconventional reservoirs, Applied Petroleum Geomechanics gives petroleum engineers a much-needed resource to tackle today's advanced oil and gas operations. Understand a great wealth of methods in formation evaluation and the most recent advancements in the area including tools, techniques, and success stories Bridge the gap between theory of rock mechanics and practical oil and gas applications Learn pore pressure calculations and predictions critical to shale and hydraulic activity