Extreme Statistics In Nanoscale Memory Design

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Extreme Statistics In Nanoscale Memory Design

Author : Amith Singhee
ISBN : 1441966064
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55.64 MB
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Knowledge exists: you only have to ?nd it VLSI design has come to an important in?ection point with the appearance of large manufacturing variations as semiconductor technology has moved to 45 nm feature sizes and below. If we ignore the random variations in the manufacturing process, simulation-based design essentially becomes useless, since its predictions will be far from the reality of manufactured ICs. On the other hand, using design margins based on some traditional notion of worst-case scenarios can force us to sacri?ce too much in terms of power consumption or manufacturing cost, to the extent of making the design goals even infeasible. We absolutely need to explicitly account for the statistics of this random variability, to have design margins that are accurate so that we can ?nd the optimum balance between yield loss and design cost. This discontinuity in design processes has led many researchers to develop effective methods of statistical design, where the designer can simulate not just the behavior of the nominal design, but the expected statistics of the behavior in manufactured ICs. Memory circuits tend to be the hardest hit by the problem of these random variations because of their high replication count on any single chip, which demands a very high statistical quality from the product. Requirements of 5–6s (0.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Extreme Statistics In Nanoscale Memory Design

Author : Amith Singhee
ISBN : 1441966056
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24.9 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 855
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Knowledge exists: you only have to ?nd it VLSI design has come to an important in?ection point with the appearance of large manufacturing variations as semiconductor technology has moved to 45 nm feature sizes and below. If we ignore the random variations in the manufacturing process, simulation-based design essentially becomes useless, since its predictions will be far from the reality of manufactured ICs. On the other hand, using design margins based on some traditional notion of worst-case scenarios can force us to sacri?ce too much in terms of power consumption or manufacturing cost, to the extent of making the design goals even infeasible. We absolutely need to explicitly account for the statistics of this random variability, to have design margins that are accurate so that we can ?nd the optimum balance between yield loss and design cost. This discontinuity in design processes has led many researchers to develop effective methods of statistical design, where the designer can simulate not just the behavior of the nominal design, but the expected statistics of the behavior in manufactured ICs. Memory circuits tend to be the hardest hit by the problem of these random variations because of their high replication count on any single chip, which demands a very high statistical quality from the product. Requirements of 5–6s (0.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Machine Learning In Vlsi Computer Aided Design

Author : Ibrahim (Abe) M. Elfadel
ISBN : 9783030046668
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87.95 MB
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This book provides readers with an up-to-date account of the use of machine learning frameworks, methodologies, algorithms and techniques in the context of computer-aided design (CAD) for very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI). Coverage includes the various machine learning methods used in lithography, physical design, yield prediction, post-silicon performance analysis, reliability and failure analysis, power and thermal analysis, analog design, logic synthesis, verification, and neuromorphic design. Provides up-to-date information on machine learning in VLSI CAD for device modeling, layout verifications, yield prediction, post-silicon validation, and reliability; Discusses the use of machine learning techniques in the context of analog and digital synthesis; Demonstrates how to formulate VLSI CAD objectives as machine learning problems and provides a comprehensive treatment of their efficient solutions; Discusses the tradeoff between the cost of collecting data and prediction accuracy and provides a methodology for using prior data to reduce cost of data collection in the design, testing and validation of both analog and digital VLSI designs. From the Foreword As the semiconductor industry embraces the rising swell of cognitive systems and edge intelligence, this book could serve as a harbinger and example of the osmosis that will exist between our cognitive structures and methods, on the one hand, and the hardware architectures and technologies that will support them, on the other....As we transition from the computing era to the cognitive one, it behooves us to remember the success story of VLSI CAD and to earnestly seek the help of the invisible hand so that our future cognitive systems are used to design more powerful cognitive systems. This book is very much aligned with this on-going transition from computing to cognition, and it is with deep pleasure that I recommend it to all those who are actively engaged in this exciting transformation. Dr. Ruchir Puri, IBM Fellow, IBM Watson CTO & Chief Architect, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
Category: Technology & Engineering

Green Computing With Emerging Memory

Author : Takayuki Kawahara
ISBN : 9781461408123
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.31 MB
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This book describes computing innovation, using non-volatile memory for a sustainable world. It appeals to both computing engineers and device engineers by describing a new means of lower power computing innovation, without sacrificing performance over conventional low-voltage operation. Readers will be introduced to methods of design and implementation for non-volatile memory which allow computing equipment to be turned off normally when not in use and to be turned on instantly to operate with full performance when needed.
Category: Science

Circuit Design Anticipate Analyze Exploit Variations

Author : Stephan Weber
ISBN : 9788793609921
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39.2 MB
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Circuit Design = Science + Art! Designers need a skilled “gut feeling” about circuits and related analytical techniques, plus creativity, to solve all problems and to adhere to the specifications, the written and the unwritten ones. You must anticipate a large number of influences, like temperature effects, supply voltages changes, offset voltages, layout parasitics, and numerous kinds of technology variations to end up with a circuit that works. This is challenging for analog, custom-digital, mixed-signal or RF circuits, and often researching new design methods in relevant journals, conference proceedings and design tools gives the impression unfortunately that just a “wild bunch” of “advanced techniques” exist. On the other hand, state-of-the-art tools nowadays indeed offer a good cockpit to steer the design flow, which include clever statistical methods and optimization techniques. Actually, this almost presents a second breakthrough, like the introduction of circuit simulators 40 years ago! Users can now conveniently analyze all the problems (discover, quantify, verify), and even exploit them, for example for optimization purposes. Most designers are caught up on everyday problems, so we fit that “wild bunch” into a systematic approach for variation-aware design, a designer’s field guide and more. That is where this book can help! Circuit Design: Anticipate, Analyze, Exploit Variations starts with best-practise manual methods and links them tightly to up-to-date automation algorithms. We provide many tractable examples and explain key techniques you have to know. We then enable you to select and setup suitable methods for each design task – knowing their prerequisites, advantages and, as too often overlooked, their limitations as well. The good thing with computers is that you yourself can often verify amazing things with little effort, and you can use software not only to your direct advantage in solving a specific problem, but also for becoming a better skilled, more experienced engineer. Unfortunately, EDA design environments are not good at all to learn about advanced numerics. So with this book we also provide two apps for learning about statistic and optimization directly with circuit-related examples, and in real-time so without the long simulation times. This helps to develop a healthy statistical gut feeling for circuit design. The book is written for engineers, students in engineering and CAD / methodology experts. Readers should have some background in standard design techniques like entering a design in a schematic capture and simulating it, and also know about major technology aspects.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Evolvable Hardware

Author : Martin A. Trefzer
ISBN : 9783662446164
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85.1 MB
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This book covers the basic theory, practical details and advanced research of the implementation of evolutionary methods on physical substrates. Most of the examples are from electronic engineering applications, including transistor-level design and system-level implementation. The authors present an overview of the successes achieved, and the book will act as a point of reference for both academic and industrial researchers.
Category: Computers

The Fourth Terminal

Author : Sylvain Clerc
ISBN : 9783030394967
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30.63 MB
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This book discusses the advantages and challenges of Body-Biasing for integrated circuits and systems, together with the deployment of the design infrastructure needed to generate this Body-Bias voltage. These new design solutions enable state of the art energy efficiency and system flexibility for the latest applications, such as Internet of Things and 5G communications.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Embedded Memories For Nano Scale Vlsis

Author : Kevin Zhang
ISBN : 0387884971
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34.27 MB
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Kevin Zhang Advancement of semiconductor technology has driven the rapid growth of very large scale integrated (VLSI) systems for increasingly broad applications, incl- ing high-end and mobile computing, consumer electronics such as 3D gaming, multi-function or smart phone, and various set-top players and ubiquitous sensor and medical devices. To meet the increasing demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in many different system applications, it is often required to have a large amount of on-die or embedded memory to support the need of data bandwidth in a system. The varieties of embedded memory in a given system have alsobecome increasingly more complex, ranging fromstatictodynamic and volatile to nonvolatile. Among embedded memories, six-transistor (6T)-based static random access memory (SRAM) continues to play a pivotal role in nearly all VLSI systems due to its superior speed and full compatibility with logic process technology. But as the technology scaling continues, SRAM design is facing severe challenge in mainta- ing suf?cient cell stability margin under relentless area scaling. Meanwhile, rapid expansion in mobile application, including new emerging application in sensor and medical devices, requires far more aggressive voltage scaling to meet very str- gent power constraint. Many innovative circuit topologies and techniques have been extensively explored in recent years to address these challenges.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Nanoscale Optics And Electronics

Author :
ISBN : 0123751799
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86.82 MB
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With the increasing demand for smaller, faster, and more highly integrated optical and electronic devices, as well as extremely sensitive detectors for biomedical and environmental applications, a field called nano-optics or nano-photonics/electronics is emerging – studying the many promising optical properties of nanostructures. Like nanotechnology itself, it is a rapidly evolving and changing field – but because of strong research activity in optical communication and related devices, combined with the intensive work on nanotechnology, nano-optics is shaping up fast to be a field with a promising future. This book serves as a one-stop review of modern nano-optical/photonic and nano-electronic techniques, applications, and developments. Provides overview of the field of Nano-optics/photonics and electronics, detailing practical examples of photonic technology in a wide range of applications Discusses photonic systems and devices with mathematical rigor precise enough for design purposes A one-stop review of modern nano-optical/photonic and nano-electronic techniques, applications, and developments.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Dependable Multicore Architectures At Nanoscale

Author : Marco Ottavi
ISBN : 9783319544229
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.18 MB
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This book provides comprehensive coverage of the dependability challenges in today's advanced computing systems. It is an in-depth discussion of all the technological and design-level techniques that may be used to overcome these issues and analyzes various dependability-assessment methods. The impact of individual application scenarios on the definition of challenges and solutions is considered so that the designer can clearly assess the problems and adjust the solution based on the specifications in question. The book is composed of three sections, beginning with an introduction to current dependability challenges arising in complex computing systems implemented with nanoscale technologies, and of the effect of the application scenario. The second section details all the fault-tolerance techniques that are applicable in the manufacture of reliable advanced computing devices. Different levels, from technology-level fault avoidance to the use of error correcting codes and system-level checkpointing are introduced and explained as applicable to the different application scenario requirements. Finally the third section proposes a roadmap of future trends in and perspectives on the dependability and manufacturability of advanced computing systems from the special point of view of industrial stakeholders. Dependable Multicore Architectures at Nanoscale showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of nanoscale manufacturing and systems reliability over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC1103 MEDIAN, a think-tank with participants from 27 countries. Academic researchers and graduate students working in multi-core computer systems and their manufacture will find this book of interest as will industrial design and manufacturing engineers working in VLSI companies.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Emerging Devices For Low Power And High Performance Nanosystems

Author : Simon Deleonibus
ISBN : 9780429858628
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.11 MB
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The history of information and communications technologies (ICT) has been paved by both evolutive paths and challenging alternatives, so-called emerging devices and architectures. Their introduction poses the issues of state variable definition, information processing, and process integration in 2D, above IC, and in 3D. This book reviews the capabilities of integrated nanosystems to match low power and high performance either by hybrid and heterogeneous CMOS in 2D/3D or by emerging devices for alternative sensing, actuating, data storage, and processing. The choice of future ICTs will need to take into account not only their energy efficiency but also their sustainability in the global ecosystem.
Category: Science

Chips 2020

Author : Bernd Hoefflinger
ISBN : 9783642230967
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.64 MB
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The chips in present-day cell phones already contain billions of sub-100-nanometer transistors. By 2020, however, we will see systems-on-chips with trillions of 10-nanometer transistors. But this will be the end of the miniaturization, because yet smaller transistors, containing just a few control atoms, are subject to statistical fluctuations and thus no longer useful. We also need to worry about a potential energy crisis, because in less than five years from now, with current chip technology, the internet alone would consume the total global electrical power! This book presents a new, sustainable roadmap towards ultra-low-energy (femto-Joule), high-performance electronics. The focus is on the energy-efficiency of the various chip functions: sensing, processing, and communication, in a top-down spirit involving new architectures such as silicon brains, ultra-low-voltage circuits, energy harvesting, and 3D silicon technologies. Recognized world leaders from industry and from the research community share their views of this nanoelectronics future. They discuss, among other things, ubiquitous communication based on mobile companions, health and care supported by autonomous implants and by personal carebots, safe and efficient mobility assisted by co-pilots equipped with intelligent micro-electromechanical systems, and internet-based education for a billion people from kindergarden to retirement. This book should help and interest all those who will have to make decisions associated with future electronics: students, graduates, educators, and researchers, as well as managers, investors, and policy makers. Introduction: Towards Sustainable 2020 Nanoelectronics.- From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics.- The Future of Eight Chip Technologies.- Analog–Digital Interfaces.- Interconnects and Transceivers.- Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics.- ITRS: The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.- Nanolithography.- Power-Efficient Design Challenges.- Superprocessors and Supercomputers.- Towards Terabit Memories.- 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia.- The Next-Generation Mobile User-Experience.- MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer.- Vision Sensors and Cameras.- Digital Neural Networks for New Media.- Retinal Implants for Blind Patients.- Silicon Brains.- Energy Harvesting and Chip Autonomy.- The Energy Crisis.- The Extreme-Technology Industry.- Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics.- 2020 World with Chips.
Category: Science