Ecological Statistics

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Ecological Statistics

Author : Gordon A. Fox
ISBN : 9780199672554
Genre : Ecology
File Size : 82.40 MB
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The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.
Category: Ecology

Handbook Of Environmental And Ecological Statistics

Author : Alan E. Gelfand
ISBN : 9781498752121
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70.98 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 117
Read : 1033

This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The 21st century statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial; no longer are simple regression and analysis of variance methods adequate. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble a state-of-the-art view of this interface. Features: An internationally regarded editorial team. A distinguished collection of contributors. A thoroughly contemporary treatment of a substantial interdisciplinary interface. Written to engage both statisticians as well as quantitative environmental researchers. 34 chapters covering methodology, ecological processes, environmental exposure, and statistical methods in climate science.
Category: Mathematics

A Primer Of Ecological Statistics

Author : Nicholas J. Gotelli
ISBN : 1605350648
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.14 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Read : 405

This book takes a broad-based approach that emphasizes the historical, cultural, political, religious, social, and economic factors that underlie an understanding of both global and domestic terrorism. This unique text-reader combines original essays with the best of the existing literature on terrorism. Each chapter of this text begins with an overview essay written by the authors, followed by two relevant and engaging articles culled from a wide variety of popular, academic, and governmental sources. This is the only major terrorism text to incorporate readings from top terrorism experts into a traditional textbook format, allowing readers to deepen their understanding of each aspect of terrorism.
Category: Science

Environmental And Ecological Statistics With R

Author : Song S. Qian
ISBN : 1420062085
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 27.48 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Emphasizing the inductive nature of statistical thinking, Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R connects applied statistics to the environmental and ecological fields. It follows the general approach to solving a statistical modeling problem, covering model specification, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. The author uses many examples to illustrate the statistical models and presents R implementations of the models. The book first builds a foundation for conducting a simple data analysis task, such as exploratory data analysis and fitting linear regression models. It then focuses on statistical modeling, including linear and nonlinear models, classification and regression tree, and the generalized linear model. The text also discusses the use of simulation for model checking, provides tools for a critical assessment of the developed model, and explores multilevel regression models, which are a class of models that can have a broad impact in environmental and ecological data analysis. Based on courses taught by the author at Duke University, this book focuses on statistical modeling and data analysis for environmental and ecological problems. By guiding readers through the processes of scientific problem solving and statistical model development, it eases the transition from scientific hypothesis to statistical model.
Category: Mathematics

Ecological Statistics

Author : Gordon A. Fox
ISBN : 9780199672547
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.70 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Read : 820

The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.
Category: Science

Analyzing Ecological Data

Author : Alain Zuur
ISBN : 9780387459721
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.72 MB
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This book provides a practical introduction to analyzing ecological data using real data sets. The first part gives a largely non-mathematical introduction to data exploration, univariate methods (including GAM and mixed modeling techniques), multivariate analysis, time series analysis, and spatial statistics. The second part provides 17 case studies. The case studies include topics ranging from terrestrial ecology to marine biology and can be used as a template for a reader’s own data analysis. Data from all case studies are available from www.highstat.com. Guidance on software is provided in the book.
Category: Science

Multivariate Statistics For Wildlife And Ecology Research

Author : Kevin McGarigal
ISBN : 9781461212881
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.16 MB
Format : PDF
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With its focus on the practical application of the techniques of multivariate statistics, this book shapes the powerful tools of statistics for the specific needs of ecologists and makes statistics more applicable to their course of study. It gives readers a solid conceptual understanding of the role of multivariate statistics in ecological applications and the relationships among various techniques, while avoiding detailed mathematics and the underlying theory. More importantly, the reader will gain insight into the type of research questions best handled by each technique and the important considerations in applying them. Whether used as a textbook for specialised courses or as a supplement to general statistics texts, the book emphasises those techniques that students of ecology and natural resources most need to understand and employ in their research. While targeted for upper-division and graduate students in wildlife biology, forestry, and ecology, and for professional wildlife scientists and natural resource managers, this book will also be valuable to researchers in any of the biological sciences.
Category: Science

Ecological Models And Data In R

Author : Benjamin M. Bolker
ISBN : 9780691125220
Genre : Computers
File Size : 46.65 MB
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Introduction and background; Exploratory data analysis and graphics; Deterministic functions for ecological modeling; Probability and stochastic distributions for ecological modeling; Stochatsic simulation and power analysis; Likelihood and all that; Optimization and all that; Likelihood examples; Standar statistics revisited; Modeling variance; Dynamic models.
Category: Computers

Environmental And Ecological Statistics With R

Author : Song S. Qian
ISBN : 9781498728737
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 58.8 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 853
Read : 717

Emphasizing the inductive nature of statistical thinking, Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition, connects applied statistics to the environmental and ecological fields. Using examples from published works in the ecological and environmental literature, the book explains the approach to solving a statistical problem, covering model specification, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. It includes many examples to illustrate the statistical methods and presents R code for their implementation. The emphasis is on model interpretation and assessment, and using several core examples throughout the book, the author illustrates the iterative nature of statistical inference. The book starts with a description of commonly used statistical assumptions and exploratory data analysis tools for the verification of these assumptions. It then focuses on the process of building suitable statistical models, including linear and nonlinear models, classification and regression trees, generalized linear models, and multilevel models. It also discusses the use of simulation for model checking, and provides tools for a critical assessment of the developed models. The second edition also includes a complete critique of a threshold model. Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition focuses on statistical modeling and data analysis for environmental and ecological problems. By guiding readers through the process of scientific problem solving and statistical model development, it eases the transition from scientific hypothesis to statistical model.
Category: Mathematics

A Primer Of Ecological Statistics

Author : Nicholas J. Gotelli
ISBN : 0878932690
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.69 MB
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Download : 204
Read : 436

Part I: FundamentaIs of Probability and Statistical Thinking. Chapter 1: An lntroduction to Probability. What Is Probability? Measuring Probability. The Probability of a Single Event. Prey Capture by Carnivorous Plants. Estimating Probabilities by Sampling . Problems in the Definition Probability The Mathematics of Probability. Defining the Sample Space. Complex and Shared Events: Combining Simple Probabilities. Probability Calcu1ations: Milkweeds and Caterpillars. Complex and Shared Events: Rules for Combining Sets, Conditional Probabilities. Bayes' Theorem. Chapter 2: Random Variables and Probability Distributions. Discrete Random Variables. Bernoulli Random Variables. An Example of a Bernoulli Trial. Many Bernoulli Trials = A Binomial Randorn Variable. The Binomial Distribution. Poisson Random Variables. An Example of a Poisson Random Variable: Distribution of aRare Plant. The Expected Value of a Discrete Random Variable. The Variance of a Discrete Random Variable. Continuous Random Variables. Uniform Random Variables. The Expected Value of a Continuous Random Variable. Normal Random Variables. Useful Properties of the Normal Distribution. Other Continuous Random Variables. The Central Limit Theorem. Chapter 3: Summary Statistics: Measuresof Location and Spread. Measures of Location. The Arithmetic Mean Other Means. Other Measures of Location: The Median and the Mode. When to Use Each Measure of Location. Measures of Spread. The Variance and the Standard Deviation. The Standard Error of the Mean. Skewness, Kurtosis, and Central Moments. Quantiles. Using Measures of Spread. Some Philosophical Issues Surrounding Summary Statistics. Confidence Intervals. Generalized Confidence lntervals. Chapter 4: Framing and Testing Hypotheses. Scientific Methods. Deduction and lnduction. Moderrn-Day lnduction: Bayesian lnference. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method. Testing Statistical Hypotheses. Statistical Hypotheses versus Scientific Hypotheses. Statistical Significance and P - Values. Errors in Hypothesis Testing. Parameter Estimation and Prediction. Chapter 5:Three Frameworks for Statistical Analysis. Sample Problem. Monte Carlo Analysis. Step 1: Specifying the Test Statistic. Step 2: Creating the Null Distribution. Step 3: Deciding on a One- or Two- Tailed Test. Step 4: Calculating the Tail Probability. Assumptions of the Monte Carlo Method. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Monte Carlo Method. Parametric Analysis. Step 1: Specifyjng the Test Statistic. Step 2: Specifying the Null Distribution. Step 3: Calculating the Tail Probability. Assumptions of the Parametric Method. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Parametric Method. Least-Squares Parameter Estimates 246 Variance Components and the Coefficient of Determination. Hypothesis Tests with Regression. The Anatomy of an ANOVA Table. Other Tests and Confidence IntervaIs. Assumptions of Regression. Diagnostic Tests For Regression. Plotting ResiduaIs. Other Diagnostic Plots. The lnfluence Function. Monte Cado and Bayesian Analyses. Linear Regression Using Monte Cado Methods. Linear Regression Using Bayesian Methods. Other Kinds of Regression Analyses. Robust Regression. Quantile Regression. Logistic Regression. Non-Linear Regression. Multiple Regression. Path AnaIysis. Model Selection Cri teria. Model Selection Methods for Multiple Regression. Model Selection Methods in Path Analysis. Bayesian Model Selection. Chapter 10: The Analysis Of VarianceSymbols and Labels in ANOVA. ANOVA and Partitioning of the Sum of Squares. The Assumptions of ANOVA. Hypothesis Tests with ANOVA. Constructing F- Ratios. A Bestiary of ANOVA Tables. Randomized Block. Nested ANOVA. Two- Way ANOVA. ANOVA for Three- Way and n- Way Designs. Split-Plot ANOVA. Repeated Measures ANOVA. ANCOVA. Random versus Fixed Factors in ANOVA. Partitioning the Variance in ANOVA. After ANOVA: Plotting and Understanding Interaction Terms. Plotting Results from One-Way ANOVAs. Plotting Results from Two- Way ANOVAs. Understanding the lnteraction Term. Plotting Results fram ANCOVAs. Comparing Means. A Posteriori Comparisons. A Priori Contrasts. Bonferroni Corrections and the Problem of Multiple Tests. Chapter 11: The Analysis of Categorical Data. Two- Way Contingency Tables. Organizing the Data. Are the Variables lndependent? Testing the Hypothesis: Pearson's Chi-square Test. An Alternative to Pearson's Chi-Square: The G- Test. The Chi-square Test and the G- Test for R x C Tables. Which Test To Choose? Multi- Way Contingency Tables. Organizing the Data. On to Multi- Way Tables! Bayesian Approaches to Contingency Tables. Tests for Goodness-of-Fit. Goodness-of- Fit Tests for Discrete Distributions. Testing Goodness-of-Fit for Continuous. Distributions: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. Chapter 12: The Analysis Of Multivariate Data. Approaching Multivariate Data. The Need for Matrix Algebra. Comparing Multivariate Means. Comparing Multivariate Means of Two Samples: Hotelling's y2 Test. Comparing Multivariate Means of More Than Two Samples: A Simple MANOVA. The Multivariate Normal Distribution. Testing for Multivariate Normality. Measurements of Multivariate Distance. Measuring Distances between Two IndividuaIs. Measuring Distances Between Two Groups. Other Measurements of Distance. Ordination. Principal Component Analysis 406 Factor Analysis. Principal Coordinates Analysis. Correspondence Analysis. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. Advantages and Disadvantages of Ordination.Classification . Cluster Analysis. Choosing a Clustering Method. Discriminant Analysis. Advantages and Disadvantages of Classification. Multivariate Multiple Regression. Redundancy Analysis.
Category: Science

Environmental And Ecological Statistics With R Second Edition

Author : Song S. Qian
ISBN : 9781498728751
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 72.85 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 661
Read : 788

Emphasizing the inductive nature of statistical thinking, Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition, connects applied statistics to the environmental and ecological fields. Using examples from published works in the ecological and environmental literature, the book explains the approach to solving a statistical problem, covering model specification, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. It includes many examples to illustrate the statistical methods and presents R code for their implementation. The emphasis is on model interpretation and assessment, and using several core examples throughout the book, the author illustrates the iterative nature of statistical inference. The book starts with a description of commonly used statistical assumptions and exploratory data analysis tools for the verification of these assumptions. It then focuses on the process of building suitable statistical models, including linear and nonlinear models, classification and regression trees, generalized linear models, and multilevel models. It also discusses the use of simulation for model checking, and provides tools for a critical assessment of the developed models. The second edition also includes a complete critique of a threshold model. Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition focuses on statistical modeling and data analysis for environmental and ecological problems. By guiding readers through the process of scientific problem solving and statistical model development, it eases the transition from scientific hypothesis to statistical model.
Category: Mathematics

Environmental Statistics 1978

Author : Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.)
ISBN : STANFORD:36105130071876
Genre : Environmental statistics
File Size : 90.20 MB
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Read : 965

Category: Environmental statistics

Environmental Statistics For Belize

Author : Belize. Central Statistical Office
ISBN : UTEXAS:059173003998346
Genre : Biodiversity conservation
File Size : 32.61 MB
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Category: Biodiversity conservation

Handbook Of Environmental And Ecological Statistics

Author : Taylor & Francis Group
ISBN : 0367731789
Genre :
File Size : 26.57 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 774
Read : 413

This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The 21st century statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial; no longer are simple regression and analysis of variance methods adequate. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble a state-of-the-art view of this interface. Features: An internationally regarded editorial team. A distinguished collection of contributors. A thoroughly contemporary treatment of a substantial interdisciplinary interface. Written to engage both statisticians as well as quantitative environmental researchers. 34 chapters covering methodology, ecological processes, environmental exposure, and statistical methods in climate science.
Category:

Handbook Of Environmental And Ecological Statistics

Author : Alan E. Gelfand
ISBN : 1351639013
Genre :
File Size : 77.68 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 961
Read : 391

"This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in the environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including, e.g., observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble, in roughly 35 chapters, a state-ofthe-art view of this interface"--Provided by publisher.
Category:

Encyclopedia Of Environmetrics

Author : Abdel H. El-Shaarawi
ISBN : STANFORD:36105025373031
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66.26 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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A comprehensive overview of environmetric research and its applications... Environmetrics covers the development and application of quantitative methods in the environmental sciences. It provides essential tools for understanding, predicting, and controlling the impacts of agents, both man-made and natural, which affect the environment. Basic and applied research in this area covers a broad range of topics. Primary among these are the quantitative sciences, such as statistics, probability and applied mathematics, chemometrics, and econometrics. Applications are also important, for example in, ecology and environmental biology, public health, atmospheric science, geology, engineering, risk management, and regulatory/governmental policy amongst others. * Divided into 12 sections, the Encyclopedia brings together over 600 detailed articles which have been carefully selected and reviewed through the collaborative efforts of the Editors-in-Chief and the appropriate Section Editor * Presented in alphabetical order all the articles will include an explanatory introduction, extensive cross-referencing and an up-to-date bibliography providing literature references for further reading. Presenting state of the art information in a readable, highly accessible style, the scope and coverage provided by the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics will ensure its place as the landmark reference for the many scientists, educators, and decision-makers working across this multidisciplinary field. An essential reference tool for university libraries, research laboratories, government institutions and consultancies concerned with the environmental sciences, the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics brings together for the first time, comprehensive coverage of the full range of topics, techniques and applications covered by this multidisciplinary field. There is currently no central reference source which addresses the needs of this multidisciplinary community. This new Encyclopedia will fill this gap by providing a comprehensive source of relevant fundamental concepts in environmetric research, development and applications for statisticians, mathematicians, economists, environmentalists, ecologist, government officials and policy makers.
Category: Mathematics