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Author : Malcolm K. Hughes
ISBN : 1402057253
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.96 MB
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A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. These longer time perspectives are needed for assessing the unusualness of recent climate changes, as well as for providing insight on the range, variation and overall dynamics of the climate system over time spans exceeding available records from instruments, such as rain gauges and thermometers. Tree rings have become increasingly valuable in providing this long-term information because extensive data networks have been developed in temperate and boreal zones of the Earth, and quantitative methods for analyzing these data have advanced. Tree rings are among the most useful paleoclimate information sources available because they provide a high degree of chronological accuracy, high replication, and extensive spatial coverage spanning recent centuries. With the expansion and extension of tree-ring data and analytical capacity new climatic insights from tree rings are being used in a variety of applications, including for interpretation of past changes in ecosystems and human societies. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential. The material included is useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists. ‘With the pressing climatic questions of the 21st century demanding a deeper understanding of the climate system and our impact upon it, this thoughtful volume comes at critical moment. It will be of fundamental importance in not only guiding researchers, but in educating scientists and the interested lay person on the both incredible power and potential pitfalls of reconstructing climate using tree-ring analysis.’, Glen M. MacDonald, UCLA Institute of the Environment, CA, USA ‘This is an up-to-date treatment of all branches of tree-ring science, by the world’s experts in the field, reminding us that tree rings are the most important source of proxy data on climate change. Should be read by all budding dendrochronology scientists.’, Alan Robock, Rutgers University, NJ, USA
Category: Science

Dendroclimatology Of Yellow Cedar Callitropsis Nootkatensis And Late Holocene Temperature Variability On The Western Slopes Of The North Cascades In Washington State

Author : Christopher Anthony Trinies
ISBN : OCLC:1112497051
Genre : Callitropsis nootkatensis
File Size : 65.33 MB
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Subalpine tree growth in the Washington Cascades is often limited by both growing season temperatures and persistence of the winter snowpack, making paleoclimate inferences on temperature alone difficult. Here I expand on three yellow cedar chronologies on the west slopes of the North Cascades and build chronologies for two co-dominant species at one of the sites. I used the VIC hydrologic model to include biologically relevant proxies for water stress, including evapotranspiration deficit, and snow cover in a climate-growth analysis. The co-dominant species, specifically mountain hemlock, showed a climate response reminiscent of a high-elevation, energy-limited environment with an interaction between temperature and winter snow persistence. The first PC of the yellow cedar chronologies showed a strong relationship with growing season minimum temperature (R$^2=0.49$), and I did not find a strong correlation with any water stress variables. A temperature reconstruction built with a simple linear model is skillful throughout much of western Washington (CE > 0.35) and is consistent with other global and hemispheric reconstructions at low frequencies, differing at the decadal or shorter time scale. This suggests that yellow cedar at these sites may be a useful single-species proxy for temperature on the Pacific slopes of the North Cascades. Having this proxy would be helpful for understanding regional temperature add climate variability as well as adding spatial resolution to global reconstructions that are currently lacking the maritime influence on temperature in the Pacific Northwest.
Category: Callitropsis nootkatensis

Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology In The Swiss Alps

Author : Anne Kress
ISBN : 383811812X
Genre :
File Size : 46.93 MB
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Twentieth-century warming is accompanied by an altering temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation. Such hydrologic changes can affect human well-being and ecosystem dynamics more strongly than the rising future temperature itself. However, while the past, present and projected rates of regional to global temperature have been extensively investigated, only little is known about past changes in precipitation variability and the impacts on the hydrological cycle. To overcome some of these restrictions and limitations, this thesis involved the compilation of a carbon and an oxygen record from European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) in the Swiss Alps, the currently longest available tree-ring isotope chronologies in Europe. With these two isotope chronologies, the following objectives were addressed: (i) to identify the dominating climate signal in carbon and oxygen isotopes, (ii) to assess any potential biological biases, and (iii) to reconstruct long-term hydro-climate variability from stable isotopes.

Methods Of Dendrochronology

Author : E.R. Cook
ISBN : 9789401578790
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.35 MB
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This book is a review and description of the state-of-the-art methods of tree-ring analy~is with specific emphasis on applications in the environmental sciences. Traditionally, methods of tree-ring analysis, or more properly in this case methods 0/ dendrochronology, were developed and used for dating archaeological and historical structures and for reconstructing past climates. The classic book Tree Rings and Climate, by H.C. Fritts, published in 1976, provided a superb introduction to the science and an in-depth description of techniques useful for extracting climatic information from tree rings. This book, which was published by Academic Press, is sadly out of print and, even though only 12 years old, lim ited in its methods and applications. This is owing to the extremely rapid development of the science since the 1970s. Only recently have tree rings as environmental sensors been fully recog nized as a valuable tool in detecting environmental change. For example, tree ring measurements have been critically important in studies of forest decline in Europe and North America. There are also attempts to use tree-ring analysis for ecological prognosis to solve large-scale regional problems including the sustain ability of water supplies, prediction of agricultural crops, and adoption of silvi cultural measures in response to ecological changes. More speculatively, dendro chronological methods are also used for dating and evaluating some astrophysical phenomena and for indicating possible increase in the biospheric carrying capac ity due to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Category: Science

Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology

Author : Gerhard Helle
ISBN : 3642135854
Genre : Science
File Size : 38.84 MB
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This book is the unique attempt to combine current knowledge of theoretical and experimental plant physiological causes of isotope fractionations with the most recent understanding of the natural variability of isotopes in tree rings. Based on these fundamentals the application of tree-ring isotopes to climate and palaeoclimte studies is discussed including problems of ongoing pollution effects which complicate calibration studies. Since many investigations require large numbers of samples sampling strategies are addressed carefully in order not to lose any options for later analyses. A final chapter on recent technological developments in the treatment and measurement of isotopes completes the book.
Category: Science


Author : Robert Rohli
ISBN : 0763791016
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.94 MB
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Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamos Fundamentals of Microbiology, Body Systems Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. It presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program, learning design format, and numerous case studies draw students into the text and make them eager to learn more about the fascinating world of microbiology.
Category: Science

Tree Rings And Climate

Author : H Fritts
ISBN : 9780323145282
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.93 MB
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Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.
Category: Science

Hydrologic Reconstructions Using Dendroclimatology Climate Signals And Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Variability

Author : SallyRose Anderson
ISBN : OCLC:814064423
Genre :
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The Colorado River provides water to over 25 million people. Given the importance of this water supply, it is critical to understand the hydrologic variables in the Colorado River Basin. In this dissertation, I reconstructed hydrologic conditions (soil moisture, snowpack) in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) and examined different factors that influence water supply in the region (climate oscillations, oceanic-atmospheric variability). First, I reconstructed soil moisture in the UCRB. Principal components analysis (PCA) and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) techniques were used to regionalize the gridded data. Correlated tree-ring chronologies (TRCs) were used as predictor variables in stepwise linear regression (SLR) to determine the optimal regression model with the highest skill. Soil moisture was successfully reconstructed for the various regions with R2 values ranging from 0.42 to 0.78. Reconstructions that used TRCs based on ponderosa pines or pinyon pines were more statistically skillful. Second, I reconstructed snowpack in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB). I used PCA to regionalize the data. I used TRCs and climate signals (Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) as predictor variables in SLR. The snowpack reconstruction using only TRCs had an R2 value of 0.21, while the reconstruction that included the SOI had an R2 value of 0.58, demonstrating the value of including climate oscillations in regional reconstruction efforts. Last, I reconstructed snowpack in the UGRB, including a regionally specific sea surface temperature (SST) index as a predictor variable. The SST index was identified using singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine a SST region that was teleconnected with UGRB snowpack. Using a teleconnected SST region increased reconstructive skill and resulted in an R2 value of 0.63. The major contributions of this dissertation are the first soil moisture reconstruction in the United States, the first successful snowpack reconstruction in the UGRB, and conclusive evidence that using climate signals and regionally specific SST indices as predictor variables can augment reconstructive skill. Soil moisture data can be used to enhance understanding of paleoenvironments and help forecast future water availability. Reconstructed snowpack data for the UGRB will allow for a better understanding of hydrologic variability in the region.

German Dictionary Of Biology German English

Author : Manfred Eichhorn
ISBN : 0415171296
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 40.98 MB
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This volume contains some 63,000 terms and over 100,000 translations from all of the main subject areas in biology. Subject areas include: Behavioural biology, Biogeography, Biology of development, Biology of reproduction, Botany, Cytology, Ecology, Exo and Space Biology, General Biology, Genetics, Microbiology, Morphology, Physiology, Systematic and applied biology, Zoology.
Category: Foreign Language Study