Decoherence And Entropy In Complex Systems

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Decoherence And Entropy In Complex Systems

Author : Hans-Thomas Elze
ISBN : 3540206396
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24.26 MB
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The contributions to this volume are based on selected lectures from the first international workshop on decoherence, information, complexity and entropy (DICE). The aim of this volume is to reflect the growing importance ot common concepts behind seemingly different fields such as quantum mechanics, general relativity and statistical physics in a form accessible to nonspecialist researchers. Many presentations include original results which published here for the first time.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Complexity And The Arrow Of Time

Author : Charles H. Lineweaver
ISBN : 9781107027251
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.21 MB
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There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If so, what is the source of this universal enrichment? This book addresses those difficult questions, and offers a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on some of the most profound issues at the heart of science and philosophy. Readers will gain insights in complexity that reach deep into key areas of physics, biology, complexity science, philosophy and religion.
Category: Science

Quantum Potential Theory

Author : Philippe Biane
ISBN : 9783540693642
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 79.46 MB
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This book offers the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the 2007 conference, "Quantum Potential Theory: Structures and Applications to Physics." These lectures provide an introduction to the theory and discuss various applications.
Category: Mathematics

Complex Systems Science In Biomedicine

Author : Thomas Deisboeck
ISBN : 0387335323
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22.23 MB
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Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine Thomas S. Deisboeck and J. Yasha Kresh Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine covers the emerging field of systems science involving the application of physics, mathematics, engineering and computational methods and techniques to the study of biomedicine including nonlinear dynamics at the molecular, cellular, multi-cellular tissue, and organismic level. With all chapters helmed by leading scientists in the field, Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine's goal is to offer its audience a timely compendium of the ongoing research directed to the understanding of biological processes as whole systems instead of as isolated component parts. In Parts I & II, Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine provides a general systems thinking perspective and presents some of the fundamental theoretical underpinnings of this rapidly emerging field. Part III then follows with a multi-scaled approach, spanning from the molecular to macroscopic level, exemplified by studying such diverse areas as molecular networks and developmental processes, the immune and nervous systems, the heart, cancer and multi-organ failure. The volume concludes with Part IV that addresses methods and techniques driven in design and development by this new understanding of biomedical science. Key Topics Include: • Historic Perspectives of General Systems Thinking • Fundamental Methods and Techniques for Studying Complex Dynamical Systems • Applications from Molecular Networks to Disease Processes • Enabling Technologies for Exploration of Systems in the Life Sciences Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine is essential reading for experimental, theoretical, and interdisciplinary scientists working in the biomedical research field interested in a comprehensive overview of this rapidly emerging field. About the Editors: Thomas S. Deisboeck is currently Assistant Professor of Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston. An expert in interdisciplinary cancer modeling, Dr. Deisboeck is Director of the Complex Biosystems Modeling Laboratory which is part of the Harvard-MIT Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging. J. Yasha Kresh is currently Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Research Director, Professor of Medicine and Director of Cardiovascular Biophysics at the Drexel University College of Medicine. An expert in dynamical systems, he holds appointments in the School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Molecular Pathobiology Program. Prof. Kresh is Fellow of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Biomedical Engineering Society, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering.
Category: Medical

Unifying Themes In Complex Systems Vol V

Author : Ali A. Minai
ISBN : 9783642176357
Genre : Science
File Size : 20.39 MB
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The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore common themes and applications of complex system science. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex system science.
Category: Science

Rheology Of Emulsions

Author : Aleksandar M. M. Spasic
ISBN : 9780128138373
Genre : Science
File Size : 20.87 MB
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Rheology of Emulsions, Volume 22: Electrohydrodynamics Principles studies phenomena at liquid-liquid interfaces, including finely dispersed particles or structures, in particular emulsions, double emulsions and biological cells. The book considers the forces of electrical origin that participate in the physical events at liquid-liquid interfaces, taking into account electron transfer phenomenon and electrodynamics principles. Topics covered are of interest to a broad range of scientists, researchers and graduate students with a basic knowledge of physical chemistry, electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, classical and quantum electrodynamics. The implications and applications of the material presented in the book contribute to the advanced fundamental, applied and engineering research of interfacial electroviscoelastic phenomena. Features a multidisciplinary approach to electron transfer phenomena Introduces a new constitutive model of liquids and a theory of electroviscoelasticity Addresses a broad range of subject field examples that make it useful to various research communities
Category: Science

Quantum Mind

Author : Imre Koncsik
ISBN : 9783736985414
Genre : Religion
File Size : 84.44 MB
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Den Geist zu verstehen, ist ein uraltes menschliches Bedürfnis – erfahren wir doch mehr über uns und die „human conditions“. Seitdem die Parallele spätestens seit Henry Stapp zwischen den großen Theorien – der Quanten-, System- und Informationstheorie – und zentralen Eigenschaften des Geistes immer offenkundiger wurde, zeigt sich allmählich Licht am Ende des langen Tunnels: das wissenschaftliche interdisziplinäre Verständnis des Geistigen rückt in greifbare Nähe. Hinzu kommen hochaktuelle und vielversprechende Ansätze in der Künstlichen Intelligenz auf Basis der sog. Quantenbiologie als sog. Quantum Intelligence. Frei nach dem Motto von Richard Feynman „Was ich nicht bauen kann, das verstehe ich auch nicht“, wird die Brücke zwischen technologischen und theoretischen Erkenntnissen geschlagen, um dem „Geheimnis Geist“ einen entscheidenden Schritt näher zu rücken. To understand mind is an ancient human need - we learn more about ourselves and our "human conditions". Since the parallel between the great theories - the quantum, system and information theory - and central features of the mind has become more and more evident, light is gradually being revealed at the end of the long tunnel: the scientific interdisciplinary understanding of the mind takes more and more shape. In addition, highly sophisticated and promising approaches in artificial intelligence are based on the so-called quantum biology as “quantum intelligence”. According to the motto of Richard Feynman "What I cannot build, I do not understand", the bridge between technological and theoretical knowledge can be taken to bring light into the "mystery of mind".
Category: Religion

Springer Handbook Of Spacetime

Author : Abhay Ashtekar
ISBN : 9783642419928
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.46 MB
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The Springer Handbook of Spacetime is dedicated to the ground-breaking paradigm shifts embodied in the two relativity theories, and describes in detail the profound reshaping of physical sciences they ushered in. It includes in a single volume chapters on foundations, on the underlying mathematics, on physical and astrophysical implications, experimental evidence and cosmological predictions, as well as chapters on efforts to unify general relativity and quantum physics. The Handbook can be used as a desk reference by researchers in a wide variety of fields, not only by specialists in relativity but also by researchers in related areas that either grew out of, or are deeply influenced by, the two relativity theories: cosmology, astronomy and astrophysics, high energy physics, quantum field theory, mathematics, and philosophy of science. It should also serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and young researchers entering these areas, and for instructors who teach courses on these subjects. The Handbook is divided into six parts. Part A: Introduction to Spacetime Structure. Part B: Foundational Issues. Part C: Spacetime Structure and Mathematics. Part D: Confronting Relativity theories with observations. Part E: General relativity and the universe. Part F: Spacetime beyond Einstein.
Category: Science

Complexity And Emergence

Author : Evandro Agazzi
ISBN : 9789814487535
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.23 MB
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Complexity has become a central topic in certain sectors of theoretical physics and chemistry (for example, in connection with nonlinearity and deterministic chaos). Also, mathematical measurements of complexity and formal characterizations of this notion have been proposed. The question of how complex systems can show properties that are different from those of their constituent parts has nurtured philosophical debates about emergence and reductionism, which are particularly important in the study of the relationship between physics, chemistry, biology and psychology. This book offers a good presentation of those topics through a truly interdisciplinary approach in which the philosophy of science and the specialized topics of certain sciences are put in a dialogue. Contents:The Notions of Complexity and Emergence:What is Complexity? (E Agazzi)On Levels and Types of Complexity and Emergence (H Lenk & A Stephan)Formal Metatheoretical Criteria of Complexity and Emergence (C U Moulines)Beyond Reductionism and Holism. The Approach of Synergetics (B Kanitscheider)Kolmogorov Complexity (J Mosterín)Modèles de Structures Émergentes dans les Systèmes Complexes (J Petitot)Complexity and Emergence in Natural Science:Emergence in Physics: The Case of Classical Physics (R Omnés)Classical Properties in a Quantum-Mechanical World (A Cordero)Reduction, Integration, Emergence and Complexity in Biological Networks (J Ricard)The Emergence of the Mind:Complexity and the Emergence of Meaning: Toward a Semiophysics (F Tito Arecchi)Complexity and the Emergence of Intentionality: Some Misconceptions (M Casartelli)Can Supervenience Save the Mental? (L Montecucco)From Complexity Levels to the Separate Soul (G Del Re) Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers. Keywords:
Category: Science

The Physical Basis Of The Direction Of Time

Author : H. Dieter Zeh
ISBN : 9783540680017
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.88 MB
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This thoroughly revised 5th edition of Zeh's classic text investigates irreversible phenomena and their foundation in classical, quantum and cosmological settings. It includes new sections on the meaning of probabilities in a cosmological context, irreversible aspects of quantum computers, and various consequences of the expansion of the Universe. In particular, the book offers an analysis of the physical concept of time.
Category: Science

Fractals Diffusion And Relaxation In Disordered Complex Systems

Author : Yuri P. Kalmykov
ISBN : 9780471790259
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.54 MB
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Fractals, Diffusion, and Relaxation in Disordered Complex Systems is a special guest-edited, two-part volume of Advances in Chemical Physics that continues to report recent advances with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally recognized researchers.
Category: Science

Quantum Gravity

Author : Claus Kiefer
ISBN : 9780191628856
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.93 MB
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The search for a quantum theory of the gravitational field is one of the great open problems in theoretical physics. This book presents a self-contained discussion of the concepts, methods and applications that can be expected in such a theory. The two main approaches to its construction — the direct quantisation of Einstein's general theory of relativity and string theory — are covered. Whereas the first attempts to construct a viable theory for the gravitational field alone, string theory assumes that a quantum theory of gravity will be achieved only through a unification of all the interactions. However, both employ the general method of quantization of constrained systems, which is described together with illustrative examples relevant for quantum gravity. There is a detailed presentation of the main approaches employed in quantum general relativity: path-integral quantization, the background-field method and canonical quantum gravity in the metric, connection and loop formulations. The discussion of string theory centres around its quantum-gravitational aspects and the comparison with quantum general relativity. Physical applications discussed at length include the quantization of black holes, quantum cosmology, the indications of a discrete structure of spacetime, and the origin of irreversibility. This third edition contains new chapters or sections on quantum gravity phenomenology, Horava-Lifshitz quantum gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and affine quantum gravity. It will present updates on loop quantum cosmology, the LTB model, asymptotic safety, and various discrete approaches. The third edition also contains pedagogical extensions throughout the text. This book will be of interest to researchers and students working in relativity and gravitation, cosmology, quantum field theory and related topics. It will also be of interest to mathematicians and philosophers of science.
Category: Science

Symmetry Breaking

Author : Franco Strocchi
ISBN : 354021318X
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.78 MB
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The intriguing mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is a powerful innovative idea at the basis of most of the recent developments in theoretical physics, from statistical mechanics to many-body theory to elementary particles theory; for infinitely extended systems a symmetric Hamiltonian can account for non symmetric behaviours, giving rise to non symmetric realizations of a physical system. In the first part of this book, devoted to classical field theory, such a mechanism is explained in terms of the occurrence of disjoint sectors and their stability properties and of an improved version of the Noether theorem. For infinitely extended quantum systems, discussed in the second part, the mechanism is related to the occurrence of disjoint pure phases and characterized by a symmetry breaking order parameter, for which non perturbative criteria are discussed, following Wightman, and contrasted with the standard Goldstone perturbative strategy. The Goldstone theorem is discussed with a critical look at the hypotheses that emphasizes the crucial role of the dynamical delocalization induced by the interaction range. The Higgs mechanism in local gauges is explained in terms of the Gauss law constraint on the physical states. The mathematical details are kept to the minimum required to make the book accessible to students with basic knowledge of Hilbert space structures. Much of the material has not appeared in other textbooks.
Category: Science

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

Author : Gerd Röpke
ISBN : 9783527670574
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.75 MB
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Authored by a well-known expert in the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this book is a coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines. Starting from a general discussion of irreversibility and entropy, the method of nonequilibrium statistical operator is presented as a general concept. Stochastic processes are introduced as a necessary prerequisite to describe the evolution of a nonequilibrium state. Different standard approaches such as master equations, kinetic equations and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits of the approaches, and suggestions for improvements. The method of thermodynamic Green's function is outlined that allows for the systematic quantum statistical treatment of many-body systems. Applications and typical examples are given, as well as fully worked problems.
Category: Science

The Kolmogorov Legacy In Physics

Author : Angelo Vulpiani
ISBN : 9783540396680
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.99 MB
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The present volume, published at the occasion of his 100th birthday anniversary, is a collection of articles that reviews the impact of Kolomogorov's work in the physical sciences and provides an introduction to the modern developments that have been triggered in this way to encompass recent applications in biology, chemistry, information sciences and finance.
Category: Science

Geometric And Topological Methods For Quantum Field Theory

Author : Hernan Ocampo
ISBN : 354024283X
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.50 MB
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This volume offers an introduction, in the form of four extensive lectures, to some recent developments in several active topics at the interface between geometry, topology and quantum field theory. The first lecture is by Christine Lescop on knot invariants and configuration spaces, in which a universal finite-type invariant for knots is constructed as a series of integrals over configuration spaces. This is followed by the contribution of Raimar Wulkenhaar on Euclidean quantum field theory from a statistical point of view. The author also discusses possible renormalization techniques on noncommutative spaces. The third lecture is by Anamaria Font and Stefan Theisen on string compactification with unbroken supersymmetry. The authors show that this requirement leads to internal spaces of special holonomy and describe Calabi-Yau manifolds in detail. The last lecture, by Thierry Fack, is devoted to a K-theory proof of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and discusses some applications of K-theory to noncommutative geometry. These lectures notes, which are aimed in particular at graduate students in physics and mathematics, start with introductory material before presenting more advanced results. Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently.
Category: Science

Lattice Hadron Physics

Author : Alex Kalloniatis
ISBN : 3540239111
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.65 MB
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Lattice Hadron Physics draws upon the developments made in recent years in implementing chirality on the lattice via the overlap formalism. These developments exploit chiral effective field theory in order to extrapolate lattice results to physical quark masses, new forms of improving operators to remove lattice artefacts, analytical studies of finite-volume effects in hadronic observables, and state-of-the-art lattice calculations of excited resonances. This volume, comprised of selected lectures, is designed to assist those outside the field who want quickly to become literate in these topics. As such, it provides graduate students and experienced researchers in other areas of hadronic physics with the background through which they can appreciate, if not become active in, contemporary lattice-gauge theory and its applications to hadronic phenomena.
Category: Science

Dissipative Solitons

Author : Nail Akhmediev
ISBN : 3540233733
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60.93 MB
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This volume is devoted to the exciting topic of dissipative solitons, i.e. pulses or spatially localised waves in systems exhibiting gain and loss. Examples are laser systems, nonlinear resonators and optical transmission lines. The physical principles and mathematical concepts are explained in a clear and concise way, suitable for students and young researchers. The similarities and differences in the notion of a soliton between dissipative systems and Hamiltonian and integrable systems are discussed, and many examples are given. The contributions are written by the world's leading experts in the field, making it a unique exposition of this emerging topic.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Invariant Manifolds For Physical And Chemical Kinetics

Author : Alexander N. Gorban
ISBN : 3540226842
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.40 MB
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By bringing together various ideas and methods for extracting the slow manifolds, the authors show that it is possible to establish a more macroscopic description in nonequilibrium systems. The book treats slowness as stability. A unifying geometrical viewpoint of the thermodynamics of slow and fast motion enables the development of reduction techniques, both analytical and numerical. Examples considered in the book range from the Boltzmann kinetic equation and hydrodynamics to the Fokker-Planck equations of polymer dynamics and models of chemical kinetics describing oxidation reactions. Special chapters are devoted to model reduction in classical statistical dynamics, natural selection, and exact solutions for slow hydrodynamic manifolds. The book will be a major reference source for both theoretical and applied model reduction. Intended primarily as a postgraduate-level text in nonequilibrium kinetics and model reduction, it will also be valuable to PhD students and researchers in applied mathematics, physics and various fields of engineering.
Category: Science