1. 表示举例说明

  a case in point, after all, as a proof, as an illustration, as an example, for example, for instance, in particular, just as, namely, such, specifically, that is,to illustrate, to demonstrate

  a) Many southern cities are growing above the national average

  --- Atlanta is a case in point.

  b) The news about calcium and kidney stones is a case in point.

  c) Prisoners should be treated with respect --- they are human beings after all.

  d) These are, after all, very familiar species.

  e) It's extremely expensive to live in New York. For example,Ipay $1250 for a one-bedroom apartment.

  f) Many countries, for example Mexico and Japan, have a lot of earthquakes.

  g) Old English was in many ways similar to Modern German. For instance, the nouns, adjectives, and verbs were highly inflected.

  h)We need to rethink the way we consume energy. Take, for instance, our approach to transport.

  i) Automobile prices in particular have fallen in recent months.

  j) His last album sold half a million copies and we hope this one will be just as (=equally) popular.

  k) One of the most important stages has yet to be started, namely beginning to fit the person into their new job.

  l) The issues are in two main clusters, namely the safety and the pricing and procurement of drugs.

  m) The rules make it quite clear what should be done in such a situation.

  n)We're talking about money - specifically, the money we need to repair our schools.

  o) One solution would be to change the shape of the screen, that is,tomakeitwider.

  2. 表示增补意义

  additionally, again, along with, also, and, and then, as well as, besides,equally, even, further, furthermore, in addition, in other words, just as,likewise, moreover, not only...but also, similarly, to put it another way,torepeat, then, too, what’s more

  a) They may also additionally represent much more; they may indeed have a highly integrating social function.

  b)And again, these workshops will benefit the community widely.

  c) Dunne was murdered, along with three guards.

  d) Sugar is bad for your teeth. It can also contribute to heart disease.

  e) This is a flexible and user-friendly system suitable for beginners and advanced users alike.

  F) Fry the onions gently, and then add the meat and cook for a few minutes.

  g)The organization gives help and support to people in need, as well as raising money for local charities.

  h)People choose jobs for other reasons besides money.

  i)We want the economy to grow, but equally we want low inflation.

  j) It is possible to make good movies cheaply. Further, "low-budget" doesn't have to mean "bad."

  k)The majority of Americans increased their wealth in the past decade. Furthermore, the gains were substantial.

  l) A new security system was installed. In addition, extra guards were hired.

  m) The company provides cheap Internet access. In addition, it makes shareware freely available.

  n)The tax only affects people on incomes over $200,000 --- in other words, the very rich.

  o)The clams were delicious. Likewise, the eggplant was excellent.

  p)Using language is a very complex enterprise. Moreover, there is more to communication than merely putting sentences together.

  q)The system was not only complicated but also ineffective.

  r)The cost of food and clothing has come down in recent years. Similarly, fuel prices have fallen quite considerably.

  s)Money makes money. To put it another way, the more you invest,the greater your potential profit will be.

  t)The problem demands a global solution. To put it another way, local regulations will have very little effect.

  u) First you need to collect all the information and make detailed notes. Then you can start to actually write your essay.

  v)Think about what you owe, too, in terms of mortgages, credit cards, loans or hire purchase.


  3. 表示强调

  above all, anyway, as a matter of fact, certainly, indeed, in fact, in particular, most important, obviously, of course, surely, to be sure, truly,undoubtedly, without doubt

  p) Although it is somewhat limited in its applications it is easy to operate and above all it is fun.

  q) He got lost and spent hours looking for the station, and anyway it was past midnight by the time he got home.

  r) And, as a matter of fact, the U. S. Golf Association was delighted.

  s) Books and people certainly affected him.

  t) Most of the essays were very good indeed.

  u) Her teachers said she was a slow learner, whereas in fact she was partially deaf.

  v) Automobile prices in particular have fallen in recent months.

  w)But the reverse is true when an attorney represents a person who is obviously guilty or whose guilt is widely perceived.

  x) This is very obviously the approach of some one writing exclusively and specifically for the young.

  y) Of course therewillbesomedifficulttimesahead.

  z) If a sign were needed that the Internet has become a real market, the arrival of tax avoidance is surely it.

  aa) Throwing money at the problem is surely not the way to convince people of sincerity.

  ab) It was difficult, to be sure, but somehow we managed to finish the job.

  ac) If we truly believe we can win, then we have a very good chance at doing it.

  ad) Undoubtedly, public interest in folk music has declined.

  ae) Sally was without doubt one of the finest swimmers in the school.

  4. 表示对比或对照

  by contrast, but, conversely, in contrast, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, unlike, whereas, while, yet

  af) The birth rate for older women has declined, but, by contrast, births to teenage mothers have increased.

  ag) The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but to provide work for young people.

  ah) American consumers prefer white eggs; conversely,British buyers like brown eggs.

  ai)Scandinavian cruises are very popular in the summer;conversely, the Caribbean is most popular in the winter.

  aj)The stock lost 60 cents a share, in contrast to last year, when it gained 21 cents.

  ak) Instead of being annoyed, he seemed quite pleased.

  al)It wasn't a good thing; on the contrary it was a huge mistake.

  am) Nuclear power is relatively cheap. On the other hand,you could argue that it's not safe.

  an) It is equally vital that both should be mentioned, otherwise a client, particularly a buyer, could be seriously misled.

  ao) Unlike most people in the office, I don't come to work by car.

  ap) A bowl of instant oatmeal costs about $.15, whereas regular oatmeal costs only $.05 per bowl.

  aq) The old system was fairly complicated whereas the new system is really very simple.

  ar) Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

  as) Last summer there was a drought, yet some people were still watering their lawns every day.

  5. 表示比较

  by comparison, equally, equally important, in comparison, in the same way, in the same manner, like, likewise, similarly

  at) After months of living in a tropical climate, Spain seemed cool by comparison.

  au) By comparison with other European countries, car prices in the UK are very high.

  av) Even when the correct word was given a high probability,there were many other words with an equally high probability.

  aw) Many business people do not know what sexual harassment is. Equally important, they do not know how to prevent it.

  ax) an extremely unpleasant disease which is, however,easy to treat

  ay) Cotton production was on the increase. However,itwas still a small industry compared to hemp and canvas production.

  az) The deaf children of hearing parents are almost normal in comparison, having everything except language experience.

  ba) There is often stronger social control evident in the socialisation of girls in comparison to boys.

  bb) Good management accounts separate the well-organised from the rest but are not vital in the same way.

  bc) Idon'twanthimtreatingmelike Jim treated me.

  bd) The clams were delicious. Likewise,the egg plant was excellent.

  be) The cost of food and clothing has come down in recent years. Similarly, fuel prices have fallen quite considerably.

  6. 表示让步

  admittedly, after all, all the same, although, certainly, clearly, even so, it is true (that), in spite of, nevertheless, of course, still, true

  bf) The technique is painful, admittedly, but it benefits the patient greatly.

  bg) Printing and presentation should be as attractive as possible --- after all the library is an attractive place isn't it?

  bh) I realise she can be very annoying, but I think you should apologise all the same.

  bi) We decided to take rooms in Longwood House, although we knew we could not really afford the rent.

  bj) We are not especially well-treated, certainly not as well as the locals.

  bk) Clearly, the racial problems in America have no easy answers.

  bl) The fines for speeding are large, but even so,they are not always a deterrent.

  bm) And it is true that after his death she ceased to exist for the world beyond the farm.

  bn) But in spite of the hardships, real efforts and progress are being made.

  bo) A false belief may nevertheless be justified.

  bp) Though employment growth is down, the area is still attracting health care, high tech, banking and sports-related industries.

  7. 表示结果

  accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, in this way,so, therefore, thus

  bq) Some of the laws were contradictory. Accordingly, measures were taken to clarify them.

  br) As many as 2,500 people died as a result of the earthquake and the ensuing tidal waves.

  bs) Most computer users have never received any formal keyboard training. Consequently, their keyboard skills are inefficient.

  bt) The cost of transport is a major expense for an industry.Hence factory location is an important consideration.

  bu) In this way normal healthy people may be tested without inducing any damage in their brain.

  bv) The building work is taking quite a long time, and therefore costing us money.

  bw) Most of the evidence was destroyed in the fire. Thus it would be almost impossible to prove him guilty.

  8. 表示转折

  although, but, despite, except for, though, however, in spite of, instead,nevertheless, on the other hand, otherwise, rather than, though, yet

  bx) You can copy down my answers, although I'm not sure they're right.

  by) In the US it is normal for the police to carry guns, but not in Britain.

  bz) Despite international pressure, progress has slowed in the peace talks

  ca) Pen Pros: Except for personal letters, handwritten notes are withering into extinction.

  cb) The rooms, though small, were pleasant and airy.

  cc) This is a cheap and simple process. However there are dangers.

  cd) In spite of her success, Spencer continues to get depressed.

  ce) Cardew did not join the navy. Instead, he decided to join the theater and become an actor.

  cf) Thus we can talk of a local government system which is different from a central government system but nevertheless interacts with it.

  cg) Reintroduction of food after elemental regimens must nevertheless be undertaken with the greatest of care irrespective of whether or not elimination diets are used.

  ch) The hamburger was tough and overcooked. The fries, on the other hand, were terrific, and well worth the money.

  ci)Stir the sauce until it cools, otherwise it will be lumpy.

  cj)It presumes that reality is dynamic rather than static, and therefore seeks relationships between ideas, to aim at synthesis.

  ck) There is no important theory-based reason why these countries rather than others were selected.

  cl)The offenders were dealt with firmly though fairly.

  cm) They charge incredibly high prices, yet customers keep coming back for more.

  9. 表示结论

  as has been noted (mentioned, stated), at last, finally, in a word, all in all,in brief, in conclusion, in short, in sum, in summary, to conclude, to sum up,to summarize

  cn) An Inhibition as mentioned above, is rarely used.

  co) At last,wewereabletoaffordahouse.

  cp) We finally found a decent apartment close to campus.

  cq) Pop, in a word,isfascinationversusmeaning.

  cr) It was, all in all, more like a prison than an office.

  cs) In brief, the President plans to cut defense spending and lower taxes.

  ct) In conclusion, I want to thank all the people who have volunteered their time to our organization.

  cu) In short, the report says that more money should be spent on education.

  cv) In sum,weneedtocutcosts.

  cw) In summary, do not sell your shares.

  cx) To conclude, the prospects for philosophy of religion look brighter than they have done for many moons.

  cy) To sum up, for a healthy heart you must take regular exercise and stop smoking.

  cz) To summarize, in most cases the schools were achieving the standards set.


  and, besides, finally, first, firstly, further, in the first place, last, next,second, secondly, third, thirdly, to begin with, to start with,

  a) It also assigned staff people to work with individual companies that wanted to launch a program.

  b) This is a flexible and user-friendly system suitable for beginners and advanced users alike.

  c) You need to know what rights you have and how to use them.

  d) Besides going to aerobics twice a week, she rides horses on Saturdays.

  e) And finally, I'd like to thank the crew.

  f) First, I'd like to thank everyone for coming.

  g) The application of the five stages to the task illustrated would involve, firstly,thedefinitionofthetask.

  h) It is possible to make good movies cheaply. Further, "low-budget" doesn't have to mean "bad."

  i) And there is the question of the relevance of the trading of information in the first place.

  j) Connect the red wires first and the black ones last.

  k) First you need to select the text you want to move. Next,clickon the"Move"commandatthetopofthescreen.

  l) But, second, in the vast majority of markets, efficient production can be attained with a high degree of competition.

  m) The more you practise the better you will become at selecting historical information to suit firstly your essay and secondly your argument.

  n) To begin with, much of this new housing is not affordable.

  o) I'm not going to Vegas. To start with, I don't like gambling, and I also can't get time off work.